Proof 1: Hypothesis that Carbohydrates are Non-essential ...

D. S. McGerk | March/2017

Topic: Hypothesis Proof 1:

Carbohydrates are Non-essential to human life.

Can we really Prove that our primary source of fuel for our cellular metabolism is dependent on fat and fat alone?

   Yes - How a Hypothesis becomes a Theory ...

Babies rely on a high fat Mother's milk for all health the first year. Do we need to approach this from an Evolutionarily positon ... ? Not really as we have a daily reminder of our initial requirements that set us on our nutritional life long journey ...

We will approach this from the Animal kingdom point of view as humans are part of and interact with the total taxonomy of living things. i.e. our Gut Microbiome and Genetic History - Epigenetics | contributor july/2016

→ we only have to go back to our → Birthday


The Holy Grail

Dietary fat has been the subject of considerable derision, misinformation and disinformation through medical authorities, public policy campaigns, conventional nutritionists and the mainstream media for most of the last century. Conversely, dietary carbohydrates have been lauded as foundational to human dietary needs. This is completely Wrong.

The role of SCFAs is linked to health promoting effects, including a reduced risk of inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in addition the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by the anaerobic intestinal microbiota, have been shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on mammalian energy metabolism (1,2).

as our primary source of fuel

ketone bodies become the major fuel for the brain development. (5) (Note 1,2,3) Cerebral utilization of ketone is increased in direct proportion to the degree of ketosis. Significant utilization of ketone bodies by the brain is normal in the neonatal period. The new born infant tends to be hypoglycemic, but becomes ketoic when it begins to nurse because of the high fat content of mother's milk. The brain becomes ketotic as utilization of ketones becomes the brains primary fuel. (i.e. energy supply comes from ketone bodies).



is made up of Proteins (1%) (whey and casein), Fats (3-5%) (palmitic and oleic acids) and Sugars (7%) (non-digestible Oligosaccharides and lactose). The fats are Saturated, Monounsaturated MCTs, and with a small amount of Polyunsaturated. The fats are necessary for brain development, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and are a primary calorie source.

The richest source of medium chain fats is Mother's Milk. The MCTs are passed to the baby and small intestines where the gut microbiome, which the baby gets from the mother, and the gut microbiota transforms these into SCFAs. These fats play an essential role in the development of the brain and nurons in the developing baby. (Note 4,5)

One key ingredient in breastmilk is a brain-boosting fat called DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is a vital nutrient for growth, development and maintenance of brain tissue. Infant formulas made in the United States do not contain DHA. (Note 6)

can survive perfectly for the entire first year, or longer, on just mother's milk. The high fat content and HMOs (Oligosaccharides) in mother's milk is all the infant needs. These feed both the babies nutritional needs and the gut microbiome passed on by the mother. The mother also has passed on her complete immune antibodies to train the infant's immune system.

New knowledge: Mother's milk is high in HMO's, which the infant cannot digest, but, now we know that the mother is passing maternal immune cells and antibodies "maternal educational immunity", and feeding the Gut Microbiota which she inoculated into the baby as the baby passed down the vaginal birth canal. The Gut Microbiota then grows into a community and produces many of the vitamins and micronutrient compounds needed by the infant. (1,3,4)

HMOs are known to be more than just “food for bugs”. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that HMOs are antiadhesive antimicrobials that serve as soluble decoy receptors, prevent pathogen attachment to infant mucosal surfaces and lower the risk for viral, bacterial and protozoan parasite infections. This is all part of passing on immune learning. (8) (Note 7)

and the history of our ancestral diet, however, has not been consistent with these dietary claims and the subsequent War on Saturated Fat. Dietary fat is demonstrably central to our most basic energy, metabolic and physiologic needs and by restricting its intake we foster a much less healthy and unnatural dependence upon carbohydrates, to the considerable detriment of societal physical and mental health. (9)

influence specific aspects of the immune function, particularly since the intestine embodies quantitatively the largest proportion of immune tissue in mammals. (6,7) Furthermore, nearly all fibers are fermented to some extent, producing short-chain fatty acids - SCFAs, also known as volatile fatty acids - VFAs (wiki) (10,11).

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  1. Our paleo ancestors used Fats/Ketones as their primary fuel source. "Factoid - WMDs had not been invented Yet!" Fiber and the carbohydrates that comes with it are turned into Short-Chained Fatty Acids - SCFAs in the gut during bacterial fermentation (Nature) which then become a primary energy source and building blocks for DNA and Cellular growth and repair. SCFAs can cross the Blood-brain barrier and contribute to brain health. The short chain fatty acids (less than 8 carbons), are important for colon health and are the primary energy source for colonic cells and are anti-carcinogenic as well as anti-inflammatory, important for keeping colon cells healthy. (6)
    1. A ketogenic state results in a substantial (39%) increase in cerebral blood Flow, and appears to reduce cognitive dysfunction associated with systemic hypoclycemia in normal humans. (15) [ Hasselbatch SG, et al. 1996]. Dr. Hasselbatch showed that during acute hyperketonemia (mean beta-hydroxybutyrate blood concentration 2.16 mM), cerebral uptake of ketones increased from 1.11 to 5.60 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, counterbalanced by an equivalent reduction of the cerebral glucose metabolism from 25.8 to 17.2 mumol.100 g-1.min-1,
    2. Nora Gedgaudas, C.N.S., C.N.T. Health: Benefits of a Fat-Based Caloric Intake for Body and Brain, Vimeo: Ancestral Health Society (16), gives are comprehensive look at ketogenic diets and how they are beneficial for life starting at birth.
  2. Nature's Supreme Example:
    ... Gut Bacteria Symbiosis

    gut bacteria and living to 100 or living past 100
  3. The integration of the human microbiome consists of our cellular metabolism working with our intestinal microbiome. The only foods we need to intake to support te human system are Proteins, Fats and Non-digestible carbohydrates.

    An infant baby can spend its first year of life existing on Proteins, Fats, and Complex carbohydrates which are essentially non-digestible, and do quite well.

    Our ancestors ate from many different and wild sources which fostered a large diverse community of bacteria. 10,000 years of selective farming has bred out much of the fiber in favor of "softer" and "tastier" foods. "Palatability and Less Bitter" or Hyper-Palatables and referenced in Dr. Pamela Peeke's published works and her book The Hunger Fix.

    Nature's Supreme Example the Giraffe, goes from Mother's milk to eating Only - Acacia leaves, and has No malnutrition. Their Gut Microbiome can produce all the micronutrients needed for the animal to flourish and survive.

  4. is not at birth, it is when we put our uninformed opinions on our life's choices ... guessing does not count.




  1. During the perinatal period, neurons may use blood lactate directly to meet the need for the energy and carbon skeletons required for proliferation and differentiation. During the perinatal period, lactate accumulated in fetal blood is metabolized rapidly immediately after delivery, presumably to meet the need for the energy and carbons skeletons required for proliferation and differentiation of brain cells. Breastmilk can be provided exclusively for around the first 6 months, meeting all of the Infants nutritional needs. Breastmilk is still very important beyond the first 6 months. Once complementary foods are introduced breastmilk continues to provide important nutrients and growth factors up to 2 years. During the adult life, lactate is used as an exchangeable substrate among brain cells to maintain energy homeostasis in the CNS, supplying energy and carbon skeletons to neurons or oligodendrocytes. (5)
  2. Perinatal Asphyxia (PA) represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. The interaction between neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells plays a central role coupling energy supply with changes in neuronal activity. Throughout the mammalian clade, the brain requires a permanent supply of oxygen and nutrients, especially during development, when the brain needs large amounts of energy. (20,21)
  3. Originally, the liver was thought to be the major, if not the only organ, capable of supplying the brain with ketone bodies (e.g., 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) from fatty acids, but not many decades ago it was discovered the ketogenesis capacity of astrocytes not only from fatty acids, but also from leucine. Astrocytes are part of the brain metabolism. Astrocytes are the workhorse of the CNS. It is well established that astrocytes help form a network on which neurons grow. Astrocytes fill in the space between neurons, take up neurotransmitters that are released by neurons, and help maintain the correct chemical concentrations around neurons.
  4. The brain is made almost entirely of fat (57%) and protein (38%), and contains very little carbohydrate (5%). Our modern brains grew up in a low glycemic index environment. For 2 million years of our evolution, we ate much less carbohydrate than we do now, and certainly no refined or processed carbohydrates. The brain needs blood sugar and insulin levels to be nice and even in order to keep brain chemistry stable. The Real Rub - we were never designed to use carbs as fuel. Also ref: ... Carb-Loading (debunked).

      Importance/benefits of fat and ketone bodies (Ketosis) in the Brain.

    1. Fat in general makes up approx. 80% of our brain and nervous system. Ref: ... this site Health Brain
    2. 50% of the body's fat is Satruated Fat. 11% arachidonic acid and 25% of fatty acids making up the brain neurons and cells, are DHA - Omega-3. Fats and Oil - Where did the Omega-3s Go? | contributor april/2016. (31)
    3. Carb-loading Debunked - as it has proven false and many elite athletes are now becoming Fat Adapted for best results. Just by pure math it can be shown why Carb loading is wrong, as we simply cannot store enough Carbs.
    4. Ketones are an abundant, stable and steady source of fuel, even in the absence of regular eating. We can store 100Kcal of fat energy as opposed to 2Kcal of carbs. Dr. Hasselbalch showed that a ketogenic state results in a substantial (39%) increase in cerebral blood Flow. [ Hasselbatch SG, et al. 1996]. (32)
  5. Breast feeding is so important that doctors vaccinate the mother so that she can pass on immunity. UC Riverside-led study shows a baby makes copies of maternal immune cells it acquires through mother’s milk. Specific maternal immune cells in the milk cross the wall of the baby’s intestine to enter an immune organ called the thymus. Once there, they “educate” developing cells to attack the same infectious organisms to which the mother has been exposed. (4)
  6. The Link between Breastfeeding and Brain Development: Ref: Ask Dr Sears.
    1. The positive effects of breastfeeding and brain development are greater the longer the baby is breastfed.
    2. Children who were breastfed have I.Q. scores averaging seven to ten points higher than formula-fed infants. It's important to remember that these numbers represent averages for hundreds of children, not the effect of breastfeeding on a specific individual. So, if you want to raise the intelligence level of an entire generation of children, breastfeeding would be a simple and cost-effective way to do it.
    3. Studies have shown that children who are breastfed get higher grades in school, even after other influences on school performance are taken into account.
  7. A Major clue was at the end of the 19th century, when the overall infant first-year mortality rates were as high as 30%, it was observed that breast-fed infants had a much higher chance of survival and had lower incidences of infectious diarrhea and many other diseases than “bottle-fed” infants. An Austrian pediatrician and microbiologist, had just discovered a relationship between intestinal bacteria and the physiology of digestion in infants. [Escherich 1886]


[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. org The Noakes Foundation, Our goal is to support the dietary revolution that will reverse the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
  2. Rub youTube Nutrition Forum - Dr. Donald Layman, PhD, june/2013.
  3. RubADub Crain Medicine, Ancestral Knowledge for a Modern World, A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Up! DAVID HASTINGS LLOYD, feb/2015
  4. RubADub-Dub youTube, Eric Westman, MD, MHS -- LCHF Treatment of Diabetes, jul/2015
  5. 1 NCBI PubMed, Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Bugaut M, Bentejac M.
  6. 2 APS, American Physiological Society, Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species, E. N. Bergman
  7. 3 NCBI PMC, The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism, Gijs den Besten, et al.
  8. 4 ScienceDaily, High dietary fiber intake linked to health promoting short chain fatty acids
  9. 5 NCBI PubMed J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15;79(1-2):2-10. Lactate utilization by brain cells and its role in CNS development, Medina JM, Tabernero A.
  10. 6 The Sonnenburg Lab, The Good Gut, Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Justin and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg
  11. 7 UCR Today, University of Califronia, Riverside, Vaccinating Babies Without Vaccinating Babies, By Iqbal Pittalwala, September/2016
  12. 8 NCBI PMC Glycobiology. 2012 Sep; 22(9): 1147–1162. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama, Lars Bode
  13. 10 NCBI PubMed, Early nutrition and the development of immune function in the neonate. Kelly D, Coutts AG
  14. 11 USDA, Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber (2001), National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.
  15. 15 NCBI PubMed, PMID: 17509459 PMCID: PMC1940242, Am J Physiol. 1996 May;270(5 Pt 1):E746-51. Changes in cerebral blood flow and carbohydrate metabolism diuring acute hyperketonemia, S.G. Hasselbalch, et al.
  16. 16 vimeo - The ‘Holy Grail’ of Primal Health, Vimeo: Nora Gedgaudas, C.N.S., C.N.T. Health: Benefits of a Fat-Based Caloric Intake for Body and Brain.
  17. 18 NCBI PubMed - 2007, Pediatr Neurol. 2007 May;36(5):281-92. The neuropharmacology of the ketogenic diet, Hartman AL, Gasior M, Vining EP, Rogawski MA.
  18. 19 NCBI PMC PMCID: PMC2367001, NIHMSID: NIHMS42857 Behav Pharmacol. 2006;17:431–9 Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet, Gasior M, Rogawski MA, Hartman AL.
  19. 20 Front. Aging Neurosci., 27 June 2016 |, Metabolic Changes Following Perinatal Asphyxia: Role of Astrocytes and Their Interaction with Neurons, Tamara Logica, et al.
  20. 21 NCBI PubMed Science. 1986 Feb 21;231(4740):840-3., Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography, Chugani HT, Phelps ME.
  21. 31 NCBI PubMed, Am J Physiol. 1996 May;270(5 Pt 1):E746-51. Changes in cerebral blood flow and carbohydrate metabolism diuring acute hyperketonemia, S.G. Hasselbalch, et al.
  22. 32 vimeo - The ‘Holy Grail’ of Primal Health, Vimeo: Nora Gedgaudas, C.N.S., C.N.T. Health: Benefits of a Fat-Based Caloric Intake for Body and Brain.

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