The Heart driven by Bio-Chemical electrical system ...

Contributor section row cell 8 s-12

D. S. McGerk | August/2017

The Heart's Electrical System and Abnormal Rhythms and human longevity.

Topic: The Heart's Electrical System Part 3

VGCCs - Voltage Gated Calcium Channels

Many times the question is what causes Electrical Mis-fires? Heart palpitation, skipped beats, or even heart failure are all realted to Voltage Gated Calcium Channels - VGCCs. We have a biological system that relies on Chemistry to produce Electrical Signals. (Note 1,2, Summary) (1,2,3) The best solution to avoid heart irregularities is to pay attention to the body's signals of i.e. malnutrition - and electrolyte imbalance, or as Dr. Bruce Ames puts it - Triage Response.

Electro-Magnetic Fields - EMF | Bio-Chemical Electrical Malfunctions in Human Metabolism

Half of what we know is wrong, the purpose of science is to determine which half " ... Arthur Kornberg, Nobel Laureate - DNA, "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959"

Professor William Catterall is a leader in the field of Voltage Gated Ion Channels - VGCCs. Of particular interest is his youTube discussion on Voltage-gated Calcium Channels | September/2014.

    What's unique about [Ca2+]i Channels?

  1. Calcium channels couple electrical signals to cellular functions - All Cells have VGCCs.
  2. Ca2+ channels are Voltage Gated, and when activated by EMF, the voltaage sensor allows intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i to increased perhaps uncontrolled.
  3. The theraputed effects of the NO/ONOO pathway are changed and unbalanced, consequently, generating excessive oxidative stresses. (4,5)

Voltage Gated Calcium Channel - VGCC | Bio-Chemical Malfunctions in Human Metabolism - Short Circuits

    Driving causes of an irregular heartbeat - arrhythmias.

  1. Sports medicine has known for some time that electrolytes can damage and inhibit metabolic processes. Common symptoms of electrolyte disorder include: (15)
    • irregular heartbeat.
    • fast heart rate.
    • fatigue and lethargy.
    • convulsions or seizures.
    • nausea and vomiting.
    • diarrhea or constipation.
    • muscle cramping, weakness, and numbness.
    • irritability, confusion, and headaches.
  2. can change the heart muscle by injury from a heart attack or disease of the heart and coronary arteries.
  3. Prof. Emeritus Martin L. Pall

    How wireless technology harms people and nature - Jan/2017

    Prof. Pall has published 5 papers on Non-Thermal effects of EMF on Health.
  4. as one would guess Environmental Pollution now appears to be a direct cause and this is from Electro-Magnetic Fields - EMFs.
    • the new kid on the block directly affects the human body's trillions of voltage gated calcium [Ca2+]i channels. The VGCC (Voltage Gated Calcium Channels), as it turns out are sensitive to EMF, hence WiFi is suspect in much heart electrical dysfunction. (Note 3)
    • [Ca2+]i channel blockers come in 5 types. When EMFs act this force acts by activating the VGCCs allowing calcium ions (Ca2+) to flow into the cell. Most if not all of the biological effects are produced by excessive calcium in the cell!
    • EMFs are the new Smoking Cigarette, or our weapon of mass dietary destruction WMD - Sugar.

The SA node electrical potential, is dependent on VGCCs. Heart muscle action potentials display variable shape because of the participation of voltage-gated chloride [Cl-]i and calcium [Ca2+]i channels. The VGCC (Voltage Gated Calcium Channels), as it turns out is sensitive to EMF, hence WiFi is suspect in much heart electrical dysfunction. (Note 3) This is in addition to the sodium [Na+] and potassium [K+] channels used by skeletal muscle and neurons. And, too little [Na+] is just as bad as too much. (JAMA, SALT), also ref a recent Canadian study that shows there is no down side to excess K+, but Na+ optimum is a bell curve - [Ref: Potassium Sodium Table]

The primary pacemaker cells of the human heart are located at the sinoatrial [SA] node. Other conducting muscle cells with pacemaker capability exist along the tract of conducting muscle from the SA node to the tip of the ventricles. But it is the fastest pacemaker, the SA node that normally determines heart rate. (6,7) (Note 4)

Extinction Level Events | Environmental Pollution by EMF, and the Modern SAD

Sperm + Toxins = Infertility

To start, from EMF Research - 135 peer-reviewed scientific studies & reports showing significant effects of EMF exposures on male fertility (1972-2012). (8,9)

Second, avoid Endocrine Disrupters - EWG, lists the Dirty Dozen Endocrine Disruptors, 12 Hormone-Altering Chemicals and How to Avoid Them. There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another; interfering with hormone signaling; telling cells to die prematurely; competing with essential nutrients; binding to essential hormones; accumulating in organs that produce hormones. [EWG]

    According to Dr. Stephen Sinatra: (9)

  1. Avoid Known Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals. (8)
  2. Be Smart With Your Cell Phone.
    1. Your cell phone Legal Statement: clearly states Not to Carry Cell Phone in your Pockets! Additionally, it state to Keep Phone 1 inch from your head.
  3. Keep Your Laptop or Tablet Off Your Lap!
    1. Go Wired as much as Possible. Plug into ethernet, and do not use WiFi. CBS aired an Argentinian research a study conducted with 29 healthy men: 4 hours of WiFi radiation exposure via a laptop computer resulted in decreased sperm motility and DNA damage.

    According to Dr. Martin L. Pall: (11)

      There is a long list of EMF Dangerous Effect:



      According to Dr. Stephen Sinatra: (9)

    1. The answer to why we’re seeing more male fertility problems is a no-brainer. It’s the insane number of toxins in our environment. We live in a sea of chemicals. They’re in our food, water, air, personal care and household products, homes, neighborhoods, and even our electronics. And guess what? The three organs in the body that are most vulnerable to toxins are the heart, brain, and reproductive system. (8,10)
    2. When you look at the data, there’s evidence of falling sperm counts in men for several decades, in fact 45 years. Some research suggests that this could be the long-term influence of chemicals known as “endocrine disrupters,” and I agree. These substances, which include chemicals like phthalates, are present in a lot of common household items, food containers and packaging, and personal care products. Exposure has been shown to affect how our sex hormones function, and in the case of male sperm, these toxins can change their shape and their ability to swim, which makes them less able to find and fertilize the female’s egg.
    3. Another major issue I see is the electromagnetic radiation emitted by our phones, computers, wifi, and other electronics. These frequencies (EMF) have been shown to have similar debilitating effects on sperm. That can’t be helping the young men who grew up carrying a cell phone in their pocket and who now have their eyes on starting a family. (9)


Ok - Now What?

no one is fooled when people use the word Diet. It conjures up thoughts of Restricting our Eating. But, what is the real purpose of a "Diet"? ... the Centenarian Diet is a .

    Goals are Simple:

  1. Optimize our Metabolism for the Future, OMG - We cannot get to the Future "Sick".
  2. Maximize a balance of Nutrients with Food Intake.
  3. Balance Metabolism and Our Bodies will Just Do Its Thing.

What path are You On?



Bulk Supplements for nutritional requirements.



  1. Potassium [K+] is a critical element. We get plenty of sodium [Na+] and the body can balance the calcium [Ca2+]i, as it stores that in our bones. Chloride [Cl − ] comes along with Na and the Chlorine in our water. The Na+/K+ pump is responsible for transporting nutrients and maintaining cell volume. Potassium aids in muscle contraction, nerve impulse, and heart function. Potassium is harder to get as many foods are fruits and not compatible with LCHF. The USDA DV is 4700mg. However, a recent Canadian study shows there is no down side to excess K+, but Na+ optimum is a bell curve - [Ref: Potassium Sodium Table] This is harder to get without the proper diet. This must be tracked we need to work overtime to get 4700mg potassium [K+] to get it in our diet. Supplemented as Potassium Citrate there is a sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women. (14)
  2. Potassium Chloride KCl is used instead of sodium chloride NaCl, assuming normal use 7-8 grams/tsp, i.e. 1 tsp = 7-8gm. 1 tsp salt (NaCl), 39% Na by weight, 7.0g crystal salt, Na = 2730mg, KCl 52% K by weight, = 3540mg. If using Potassium Citrate M.W. = 324.4 g/mol, therefore, the mEq would be approximately 5 times KCl. KCl M.W. = 74.55 g/mol, by weight. That means adding 5 tsp of KC6H5O7 (Potassium Citrate) to you electrolyte regime.
  3. Ion Channel: The cell membrane is permeable to a number of ions, the most important of which are Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-. These ions pass across the membrane through specific ion channels that can open (become activated) and close (become inactivated). Therefore, these channels are said to be gated channels. (15,15a)
    The Na+/K+ ATPase ion transporter (Wiki), which is a critical functioning part of every animal cell, plays a major role in cellular malnutrition and dysfunction.
  4. The daily recommendation of Na, 2300mg, K, 4700mg is set, 1:2 ratio, but the problem is that any diuretic depletes both of these elemental metals. Replacing Na is easy, the real issue is K and keeping the Na+, K+, and Ca2+ balance. Without this balance, the above graph shows that an imbalance in the channels can cause errors in heart rhythm triggering. (16,17) The Na+/K+ pump is responsible for transporting nutrients and maintaining cell volume. The wrong balance of electrolytes (such as sodium or potassium) in your blood. (18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25)
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[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. JAMA , JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion
  2. SALT , SALT - Dr. Mercola analysis - ... Salt Could Actually Spare You a Heart Attack
  3. 1 American Physiological Society, Physiological Reviews, Physiological Reviews Published 1 April 2005 Vol. 85 no. 2, 757-810 DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00057.2003 Store-Operated Calcium Channels, Anant B. Parekh, James W. Putney Jr.
  4. 2 Murphy Lab, L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels
  5. 3 American Physiological Society, Heart and Circulatory Physiology Published 1 October 1997 Vol. 273 no. 4, H2083-H2089 Heterogeneity of L-type calcium current density in coronary smooth muscle, D. K. Bowles, Q. Hu, M. H. Laughlin, M. Sturek
  6. 4 youTube - Dr. Martin Pall, Dr. Martin Pall, Ph.D.: Electromagnetic Field Exposure - The Cellular Effect on Humans
  7. 1 NHI, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, USDA Human Services, What Is Atrial Fibrillation?
  8. 2 Cardiac output: intrinsic, neural and endocrine effects Tips for How to Study the Cardiovascular System, by Margaret Reece, PhD
  9. 3 APS, American Physiological Society, Arrhythmogenic Ion-Channel Remodeling in the Heart: Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction, and Atrial Fibrillation, by Stanley Nattel, Ange Maguy, Sabrina Le Bouter, Yung-Hsin Yeh
  10. 4 Cardiac Muscle Electrical Activity, Natural Pacemaker When the heart's electrical system misfires, K, Ca, and Na out of balance.
  11. 5 Sinoatrial Node Action Potentials Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, Richard E. Klabunde, PhD
  12. 6
  13. 7
  14. 8 EMF Research, Studies. 135 peer-reviewed scientific studies & reports showing significant effects of EMF exposures on male fertility (1972-2012).
  15. 9 Dr. Stehphen Sinatra, Heart MD Institute, Low Sperm Count and Male Infertility – It’s No Mystery
  16. 10 New York Times, Aug. 2017, by Maya Salam, Sperm Count in Western Men Has Dropped Over 50 Percent Since 1973, Paper Finds
  17. 11
  18. 14 NCBI PMC, Potassium citrate supplementation results in sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women, Kendall Moseley MD, Connie Weaver PhD, Lawrence Appel MD, Anthony Sebastian MD, and Deborah E. Sellmeyer MD.
  19. 15 Journal of Neuroscience February 2015, 35 (8) 3346-3359; DOI:, Peripheral Nerve Injury Induces Persistent Vascular Dysfunction and Endoneurial Hypoxia, Contributing to the Genesis of Neuropathic Pain, Tony K.Y. Lim, Xiang Q. Shi, Julia M. Johnson, Malena B. Rone, Jack P. Antel, Samuel David and Ji Zhang
  20. 15a NCBI PubMed, Peripheral Nerve Injury Induces Persistent Vascular Dysfunction and Endoneurial Hypoxia, Contributing to the Genesis of Neuropathic Pain, Tony K.Y. Lim, Xiang Q. Shi, Julia M. Johnson, Malena B. Rone, Jack P. Antel, Samuel David and Ji Zhang
  21. 16 OpenStax,, Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
  22. 17 WebMD High Blood Pressure and Diuretics (Water Pills), What Are the Side Effects of Diuretics?
  23. 18 WebMD When Your Heart Rhythm Isn't Normal
  24. 19 Mayo Clinic, Staff, Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical impulses ... Heart Arrhythmia
  25. 20 Healthline, July 2017, All About Electrolyte Disorders, by Judith Marcin, MD.
  26. 21 Lab Tests Online, Understanding Electrolytes, Empower your health, Understand Your Tests.
  27. 22 Dr. Mercola and many others, FDA's Salt Restriction Plans Could Harm Your Health - Forbidden Indulgence to Salt Could Actually Spare You a Heart Attack
  28. 23 Dangers of Restricting Your Salt Too Much, Low Salt Is Bad for Heart Health, June 08, 2016
  29. 24 End the War on Salt, The Guilty Pleasure that Could Save You From Heart Disease
  30. 25 The American Journal of Medicine, Diets to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease 1957-2013: What Have We Learned? James E. Dalen, MD, MPH, Stephen Devries, MD, FACC

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