Contributor

  70 Going on 100 and our biological clocks ...


Marilyn's Column | August/2016


Topic: Circadian Rhythm, our Metabolic Clock

Do you know what the "Circadian Rhythm" is and what it does?

   the Circadian Rhythm is our metabolic clock. In fact, all living organisms on this planet have been shown to turn on and off genes based on time of day, with eating habits playing a major role in animal and bacterial life gene expression. The human gut microbiome is part of this planets biodiversity and this microbiome has an influence on the metabolic clock. (1,2)

Circadian Rhythm, is the daily day/night cycle which regulates our metabolism. The master circadian oscillator in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, Hippocampus, is bound to the day/night cycle by retinal photoreceptors. (3) (Note: 1) Regulation of the circadian timing system by light and food. Under normal conditions of ad libitum (as desired) food, light synchronizes the master clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), which then synchronizes peripheral clocks via neuronal and endocrine pathways, ... (4)

| Open Graph in a new window |

Regulation of the circadian timing system by light and food. Under normal conditions of ad libitum food, light synchronizes the master clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), which then synchronizes peripheral clocks via neuronal and endocrine pathways, together with control over behavioral activity and thus feeding time. When feeding time (but not energy availability) is restricted, light remains the dominant synchronizer of the SCN, but peripheral clocks are synchronized to feeding time. Under conditions of temporal and energy food restriction, both the SCN and peripheral clocks are synchronized to the feeding time. (4), Dr. Jonathan D. Johnston, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.

The circadian rhythm turns on and off genes to regulate DNA repair, and it is now shown that DNA repair occurs during fasting periods, i.e. "Sleep and Time-Restricted Feeding". (Video, 6,7,8) Sleep is regulated by two body systems: Sleep/Wake homeostasis and the Circadian biological clock . Completely different genes are active during these cycles. (9,10,11,12)

Dr. Patrick and Dr. Panda discuss our current state of knowledge about the Circadian Rhythm and how it turns on and off genes while we are awake and asleep in the following: Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health | June/2016. Dr. Panda discusses his research results ... Satchidananda Panda - Watching Your Diet: One Click at a Time | May/2016. He presents the actual facts of our eating habits. Collected from A New Study App Tool for Circadian Rhythm: myCircadianClock.org. (3,13,23)

 

Restricted Feeding | Sleep and Fasting

DNA repair is an essential cellular function, (20) which, by removing DNA damaged cells before they mutate, contributes crucially to the prevention of cancer. For best recovery from stress our body needs a Rest Time. This means sleep and fasting, as the current knowledge indicate that our Circadian Rhythm controls DNA repair. The genes that control DNA repair are turned on only when our body is fasting. This simply means that our sleep/fasting cycle is one function - Restricted Feeding. Studies show that Restricted Feeding is very beneficial to living organisms. (Note 2, 3, and 4)

A minimum of 12 hours for a healthy recovery, is required for the Restricted Feeding cycle. To create Strength and Endurance this cycle should be 15 hours. Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health | June/2016. (Video) Limiting eating to 8-9 hours has many benefits i.e. active hours. DNA repair happens during fasting, this is new understanding of fasting physiology and our primordial rhythms. (21,22) myCircadianClock.org app that helps you understand your body's rhythms while contributing to research. (23)

    Summary:

  1. There is a metabolic master clock and it resets and turns on and off genes throughout the day. There are internal clocks that regulate organ clocks and body chemistry by regulating 3-6000 gene expressions on a daily cycle. This is approximately 25% of our genes on a clock. Bad diet effects these clocks and time restricted feeding resets these clocks. (24,25,26) (Note 2)
  2. Restricting feeding is important to DNA repair, and allows the body's immune response to rebuild and repair bodily tissues. Therefore, we are biologically set to an eating cycle that depends on the sun. And for best results we should at a minimum fast for 12 hours. If we can go 15 hours even better, however, that only leaves a 9 hour time slot to eat. 8-5 then fast, which is hard to do but 8-8, or 7-7 is manageable. Water only otherwise. Satchidananda Panda - Watching Your Diet: One Click at a Time | May/2016 presents the actual facts of our eating habits. Collected from A New Study App Tool for Circadian Rhythm: myCircadianClock.org.
    1. Example of Carbohydrate Sleep Interruption:

 


Notes:

  1. A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. Circadian rhythms are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals, including human beings. The study of circadian rhythms is called chronobiology.
    1. Decreases in fat mass in animals fed an ... Obesogenic Diet.
    2. Increases in lean muscle mass when on a normal diet.
    3. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.
    4. Reduction in inflammation, improvements in lipid profile, and favorable changes in gene expression-epigenetics. (26)
    5. Increases in mitochondrial volume, especially in the liver and brown fat, and an increased production of ketone bodies. (27)
    6. Protection from mild age related hepatic steatosis. In the obese this effect was especially effective, and a 53% reduction in triglyceride accumulation was seen.
    7. Further restriction showed an enhancement of endurance in the context of aerobic exercise.
  2. The Cell is a perfect lean mean machine, and we replace all of our cells regularly. Our bodies are doing this every second, plus DNA repair, and immune responses. The cell has evolved to grow, reproduce, and repair itself. 2 billion years to achieve this, then they started organizing ... The Human - Two Biological Organisms in One.
    Our favorite youTube presentations on the cell are: TED TALK: The secret, social lives of bacteria, Dr. Bonnie Bassler | april/09 (28) Chemical Conversations: How Bacteria Talk to Each Other , Dr. Bonnie Bassler | august/10 (29)
  3. Genes are activated, mitochondrial biogenesis is turned on and with it comes the body's own antioxidant response which is used by our immune system. This is known as Hormesis (20) a beneficial response to stresses (improved health, stress tolerance, growth or longevity). There is lactate generation which modulates the glycolytic system, (31) molecular mediators used by the cells and all oxygen dependent energy production cycles, (ex. obesity and insulin resistance (32)) the inflammation response is the body's diagnostic and repair response to stress, whether it is Exercise or the complex modern Inflammation Diseases.

[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. Video youTube Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health
  2. 1 ScienceNordic, New study shows that subterranean bacteria, worms, and beetles play a critical role in climate and plant life above ground. By: Sedsel Brondum Lange, Sep/15.
  3. 2 PubMed, Melanopsin (Opn4) requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting. Panda S., et al. Science. 2002 Dec 13;298(5601):2213-6.
  4. 3 youTube, Dr. Satchin Panda on Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health, jun/2016.
  5. 4 NCBI PMC, Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day, Jonathan D. Johnston
  6. 6 PLOS Research, Biological Clocks in the Duodenum and the Diurnal Regulation of Duodenal and Plasma Serotonin, Elizabeth Ebert-Zavos, Maria Horvat-Gordon, Alexander Taylor, Paul A. Bartell
  7. 7 NCBI PMC, Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness, Prof Marta Garaulet, et al.
  8. 8 Cell Metabolism, AJHG, Time-Restricted Feeding Is a Preventative and Therapeutic Intervention against Diverse Nutritional Challenges, Amandine Chaix, Amir Zarrinpar, Phuong Miu, Satchidananda Panda
  9. 9 Luke Mastin - Sleep, HOW SLEEP WORKS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS
  10. 10 Luke Mastin - Sleep, HOW SLEEP WORKS, THE TWO-PROCESS MODEL OF SLEEP REGULATION
  11. 11 UCLA Health, Circadian Rhythms, A look at the body's natural time-keeping system
  12. 12 Harvard Med, Why Sleep Matters
  13. 13 youTube Satchidananda Panda - Watching Your Diet: One Click at a Time, May/2016.
  14. 20 DNA Repair (Effects of micronutrients on DNA repair, Eur J Nutr 2012 51:261-279)
  15. 21 PLOS Research, Biological Clocks in the Duodenum and the Diurnal Regulation of Duodenal and Plasma Serotonin, Elizabeth Ebert-Zavos, Maria Horvat-Gordon, Alexander Taylor, Paul A. Bartell
  16. 22 NCBI PMC, Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day, Jonathan D. Johnston
  17. 23 myCircadianClock.org, A new type of app that helps you understand your body's rhythms while contributing to research.
  18. 24 NCBI PMC, Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness, Prof Marta Garaulet, et al.
  19. 25 Cell Metabolism, AJHG, Time-Restricted Feeding Is a Preventative and Therapeutic Intervention against Diverse Nutritional Challenges, Amandine Chaix, Amir Zarrinpar, Phuong Miu, Satchidananda Panda
  20. 26 Paleo Magazine PodCast, How Diet, Exercise, and Hyperthermic Conditioning Can Change the Expression of Your Genes, Dr R Patrick, jan 2016.
  21. 27 NCBI PMC, Suppression of Oxidative Stress by β-Hydroxybutyrate, an Endogenous Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Tadahiro Shimazu, et al. 2014
  22. 28 youTube, TED TALK, Bonnie Bassler: The secret, social lives of bacteria, Dr. Bonnie Bassler.
  23. 29 youTube, Chemical Conversations: How Bacteria Talk to Each Other, Dr. Bonnie Basssler.
  24. 30 Getting Stronger .com, Hormesis is a biological phenomenon with a beneficial effects.
  25. 31 Bioscience Horizons, Lactate: valuable for physical performance and maintenance of brain function during exercise, Joshua J. Todd.
  26. 32 JCI - Journal of Clinical Invertigation. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Jeffrey D. Browning and Jay D. Horton. july/04

About Us

is a positive online community for seniors who are interested in longevity and becoming centenarians. Living to 100 years of age becomes a goal, and sharing and exploring this goal is an issue that matters to those in the golden years. A platform for the energetic, creative, and productive, to share life experiences by contributing your experiences on this site. Founded to explore quality living, healthy aging, longevity and becoming Centenarians.