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  Hypothesis: Tumor Cell form Social Networks Collective action when there is a Quorum.


Prof. Michael A. McGerk III | March/2017


Topic: Hypothesis:

How Cancers might Communicate and Metastasize ... Carcinogenesis.

Dr. Thomas Seyfried challenges the current medical community and points to Dr. Otto Warburg - Nobel Laureate ... as a progenitor of our understanding that cancerous tumors can be looked at as a Metabolic Disease. Dr. Seyfried presents his views with lively and compelling evidence ... Cancer: A Metabolic Disease with Metabolic Solutions - 2016 Conference | Dr. Thomas Seyfried | july/2016. (1,1a,b).

Emerging evidence indicates that impaired cellular energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of nearly all cancers regardless of cellular or tissue origin. Essentially all hallmarks of cancer, including aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), can be linked to impaired mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. (2,3) Ref: ... Metabolic Model of Cancer.

Cancer's Acquired Capabilities: | Self-Sufficiency in Growth Signals (GS)

Normal cells require mitogenic growth signals (GS) before they can move from a quiescent state into an active proliferative state. These signals are transmitted into the cell by transmembrane receptors that bind distinctive classes of signaling molecules: diffusible growth factors, extracellular matrix components, and cell-to-cell adhesion/interaction molecules.

According to Hanahan and Weinberg, no type of normal cell can proliferate in the absence of such stimulatory signals. Many of the oncogenes in the cancer catalog act by mimicking normal growth signaling in one way or another. (3,3a, Hanahan D., Weinberg RA) The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. ... say the authors.

have six acquired alterations described as the hallmarks of nearly all cancers and included, 1) self-sufficiency in growth signals, 2) insensitivity to growth inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, 3) evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), 4) limitless replicative potential, 5) sustained vascularity (angiogenesis), and 6) tissue invasion and metastasis. (3,3a, Hanahan D., Weinberg RA)

Life depends on molecular messaging. Cells and organisms, simple ones like c-elegans and complicated ones like humans, are constantly exchanging internal molecular messages. These messages are critical for articulating development, tissue homeostasis, repairs of various kinds, fighting infectious bacteria and other essential functions of life. (4,5)

Primordial Soup - Human cells have a common ancestry with plants. Cells respond to light by increasing molecules such as growth factors, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP, RNA and DNA. (6,7) (Note 1,2)

Professor Loren Williams of the Georgia Tech School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and his team led the research into the first assemblies of molecules, known as the Ribosome, that led to the beginning of life. Today the ribosome converts genetic information, from RNA, into proteins in living cells and this Engine of Life is still running today.

This image is a Collapsed Tree of Life from Wikimedia Commons: by Tim Vickers, and gives a look at the huge varieties of life, and the small segment from which both Plants and Animals were derived.

This is a highly resolved Tree of Life based on completely sequenced genomes. From this genome driven depiction of our family tree it is shown that we are decendents of "Protozoa". We can see we are right there and kindred with plants, algae, fungi, and best of all ... Slime Mold. ... Who new?

 

Cancers: | Self-Sufficiency by Quorum Sensing

Dr. J. Woodland “Woody” Hastings, together with scientist Kenneth Nealson, discovered that bioluminescent bacteria could communicate and act as a group; a process Hastings called autoinduction. This communication mechanism is currently referred to as Quorum Sensing.

Dr. Bonnie Bassler - Princeton, (10,11) has shown that cellular and prokaryotic life has had 3 billion years to construct communications for beneficial and defensive pathways. Once cells could communicate Called -Quorum Sensing, they formed collective communities. Humans are just a new/recent - collective of organisms.

Our Gut Microbiome indicates that we are a symbiosis of organized single cells working to form a complex life form, that is itself an organization of specialized cell tissues working as specialized organs, regulatory systems, and control systems ... i.e. a factory that sustains complex life.

The process of cell-cell communication allows cellular communications between cells with chemical signals. This allows cells to collectively work together. When these Collectives reach a Quorum they can stimulate a collective response. To humans this looks like an Attack, but in reality, this collective has its own Agenda, and unfortunately, not always beneficial to the host.

Quorum sensing involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. This process enables populations of bacteria to regulate gene expression, and therefore behavior, on a community-wide scale. Quorum sensing research is providing insight into intra- and inter-species communication, population-level cooperation, and the design principles underlying signal transduction and information processing at the cellular level.

Quorum sensing and new science for medicine and longevity.
Zeiss: Scanning electron microscope image of Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria cells forming networks.

| Open image in new window |

Forming quorums is a well-established process within bacterial colonies. These quorums can form networks to do combat and defense. Dr. Bassler is "The Bacteria Whisperer", The Secret, Social Lives of Bacteria | Dr. Bonnie Bassler. june/2015 . Quorum sensing is wide-spread in the bacterial world, so understanding this process is fundamental to all of microbiology, including industrial and clinical microbiology, and ultimately to understanding the development of higher organisms.

may be a simple Antagonistic Pleiotropic response made possible when a quorum is formed. [Williams GC, 1957] This mechanism has been proposed as a theory for aging, and here we can surmise it as a theory for metastasis.

1) If we use a LCHF style living as a preventative to abnormal tumor growth, and if prevention fails, 2) then understanding cellular communication by combining genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, chemistry, microarray studies, bioinformatics, modeling, and engineering approaches is possible.

Engineers solve problems, they look at Causes to find Solutions, otherwise buildings collapse ... our health systems will collapse financially, due to man-made diseases which affect Epigenetics, and Future Generations ... "70 Going On 100"

The good news is that these sciences are already in place. We have the best scientific minds already deployed. These scientists love challenges they just Need the Monetary Support - NIH.

Half of what we know is wrong, the purpose of science is to determine which half " ... Arthur Kornberg, Nobel Laureate - DNA, "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959"

 


 

    Ruling Out: If we are ruling out the Nuclear theory of cancer, then, we need to rule in the Metabolic theory with the understanding that Quorum Expression is now a driving factor. Mutations are not the initiator, the Quorum is the initiator.

    There are several possible Scenarios here -

  1. dates back 3-4 billion years, and we have postulated that these cells have common ancestry, Human Animal - Are we part Plant? | contributor february/2017.
    1. Is the growth i.e. metastasis, part of the plant/animal cellular history and thusly a genetic expression?
    2. Is this metastasis an evolutionary path that is a remnent, which our bodies hold in stasis normally, balancing animal defenses against plant growth.
    3. Are Oncogenes signaled by the Quorum and become expressed which forms a cancerous quorum and allows the cancerous cells to survive. This gene expression is following an ancient genetic pathway.
    4. Weird Science - is this a plant life genome ... that is trying to find its way to fertile soil?
    Common organelles with ribosomes being the ancient self-replicators.
    The Progenitor Molecule of life was a common Self-Replicator

    | Open diagram in new window |

  2. that metastasis is demonstrated as Antagonistic Pleiotropy. This has already been proposed as an evolutionary explanation for cell senescence. [Williams GC, 1957] We may be seeing that when a Quorum is formed many gene expression may arise as a collective unit.
  3. that with our current understanding of a LCHF lifestyle, i.e. ... the Centenarian Diet, we should be able to change/prevent the metabolic expressions of cancers, and control chronic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. These are exponentially growing diseases driven by the SAD and now carried as epigenetic markers by newer generations. Ref: Exponential Epigenetic Affect - The rise of Man-made Diseases | contributor March/2017.
  4. We will need to develop tools and pharmaceutical interventions to stop Cancers for forming a Quorum. If we do that, then Managing the 6 hallmarks of Cancers (3,3a, Hanahan D., Weinberg RA) , becomes a control mechanism by which cancer cell communications can be interrupted and stopped. This will allow the immune system to then recognize and take back control. This will allow the immune system to re-gain control, and also allow other Immunotherapy - Biologic Therapy to succeed. (Note 3)
  5. Ribsomes are the ancient self-replicators which mapped to DNA to RNA to build Proteins and complex organisms such as humans.
    Mootus Pointus - Cloudus complexanus pluggedensis, "bodiless", needs only electricity ... Ray Kurzweil explains exponential power requirements: In 1000 years humans will require the entire energy output of the Sun.

    | Open diagram in new window |

  6. According to Ray Kurzweil and our own contribution What is the Future of Nutrition, and is it Important? | February/2017 this may be a Moot Point.

    With the emergence of C. complexanus pulggedensis, (Cloudus complexanus pluggedensis) we will no longer be concerned about the Human Body - a Mootus Pointus.

    So with only 30 years or so to go .... you will need to stay Healthy to get there ... and Be healthy when you get there ... consequently, we recommend ... the Centenarian Diet.
  7. Our major concern will be our old nemesis - Power Outages until we can encapuslate our sun with a solar array. However, this could explain Dark Matter as all the other advanced societies will by now, have surrounded there entire sun with a solar absorbers. Complete networks of these now Dark Suns are hidden from detection. Especially, since it will only takes 1000 years AC (After Cloud). There must be millions of these networks by now.

 


Notes:

  1. The light:dark cycle generated by the earth's rotation is the driving force of daily behavioral and physiological rhythms exhibited by most organisms. However, these daily (∼24 hr) rhythms are not just a passive response to the light:dark cycle; instead, an intrinsic timekeeping mechanism synchronizes physiological processes to the cyclic environment. The endogenous timekeeper is a self-sustained oscillator, termed the circadian clock, (20)
  2. The circadian control of an organism's response to DNA damage response rests upon circadian proteins which play important roles in the processes of cell proliferation and control of response to genotoxic stress both at the cellular and organismal levels. DNA damage triggers cellular stress response pathways which may result in checkpoint cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or DNA repair. DNA damage leads to activation of critical components of cellular stress response pathways. (21,22)
  3. LCHF Ketogenic diets are all ready being used by doctors and institutions to control metabolic dysfunctions, cancers, and Insulin Resistance. Ref: ... In a Nutshell

 


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[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. org The Noakes Foundation, Our goal is to support the dietary revolution that will reverse the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
  2. Rub youTube Nutrition Forum - Dr. Donald Layman, PhD, june/2013.
  3. RubADub Crain Medicine, Ancestral Knowledge for a Modern World, A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Up! DAVID HASTINGS LLOYD, feb/2015
  4. RubADub-Dub youTube, Eric Westman, MD, MHS -- LCHF Treatment of Diabetes, jul/2015
  5. 1 youTube, Cancer: A Metabolic Disease With Metabolic Solutions, Dr. Thomas Seyfried. mar/15
  6. 1a Boston College - Biology, Professor Thomas Seyfried - Cancer as a Metabolic Disease.
  7. 1b Travis Christofferson, author of the phenomenal book, "Tripping Over the Truth: The Return of the Metabolic Theory of Cancer Illuminates a New and Hopeful Path to a Cure."
  8. 2 BioMed Central - Nutrition & Metabolism review, Cancer as a metabolic disease, Thomas N Seyfried and Laura M Shelton
  9. 3 Cell. 2000, 100: 57-70. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA: The hallmarks of cancer.
  10. 3a Cell 2011, Volume 144, Issue 5, p646–674, 4 March 2011 Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation, Douglas Hanahan, Robert A. Weinberg
  11. 4 AgingSciences - Anti-Aging Firewalls, Quorum Sensing Part 2 - Intra and inter-species molecular communications, July 2013 by Vince Giuliano
  12. 5 AgingSciences - Anti-Aging Firewalls, Quorum sensing Part 1: quorum sensing inhibition via phytochemicals - a new approach against infectious diseases. July 2013 by Vince Giuliano
  13. 6 NCBI PubMed Sci Transl Med. 2014 May 28;6(238):238ra69. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008234, Photoactivation of endogenous latent transforming growth factor-β1 directs dental stem cell differentiation for regeneration. Arany PR, et al.
  14. 7 MCBI PMC PMCID: PMC1317110, NIHMSID: NIHMS4460, On the Role of Melatonin in Skin Physiology and Pathology, A. Slominski, et al.
  15. 10 Princeton - Molecular Biology Labs, Welcome to the Bassler Lab
  16. 11 NCBI PubMed, Local and global consequences of flow on bacterial quorum sensing. Kim MK, Ingremeau F, Zhao A, Bassler BL, Stone HA.
  17. 20 youTube, Dr. Satchin Panda on Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health, June, 2016
  18. 21 NCBI PMC J Circadian Rhythms. 2010; 8: 3. doi: 10.1186/1740-3391-8-3, Circadian rhythm and its role in malignancy, Sobia Rana and Saqib Mahmood.
  19. 22 Circulation Research. 2010;106:68-78 Circadian Proteins and Genotoxic Stress Response, Marina P. Antoch and Roman V. Kondratov.

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