Brain Longevity

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Brain - and the Centenarian Diet

University of Washington, "The adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds (1,300-1,400 g). The adult human brain is about 2% of the total body weight ... but, uses 20% of the body's energy, oxygen, and blood flow, - more when sleeping." ... interesting?

The Brain Evolution | Diet Ramifications

A timeline showing some of the temporal intersections of diet, natural selection and one of the many changes in human morphology. 
				Green bars indicate the temporal range on which different methods for scanning for selection are optimized to identify relevant changes in the genome. 
				Blue bars indicate the times in which there is evidence for shifts in human dietary intake. The colored bubbles are a general schematic of the time and range in size of cranial capacity found in various 
				hominin species adapted from Schoenemann (3) with additional data from White et al. (4).

| Open Graph in a new window |

Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins. (1, 1a, 2)
Courtney C. Babbitt, Lisa R. Warner, Olivier Fedrigo, Christine E. Wall, Gregory A. Wray, Published 22 December 2010

have been busy, and the above chart follows brain size development by showing cranial capacity from fossil records. It is a timeline showing some of the temporal intersections of diet, natural selection and one of the many changes in human morphology, of which, brain crainal capacity would seem to be the most important. From a nutritional perspective, what is important is that the brain consumes roughly 16 times as much energy as muscle tissue per unit of weight. (1a, 5, 6)

1) Cooking food started making a difference to brain size and physiology, 2) Eating cooked meats and seafood's also contributed to this change. Cooking food or a "Soft Diet" is surprisingly just being research, Professor Richard Wrangham, Harvard University, (Video) has a good discussion on current research and thinking. The Soft food diets allow for approximately 44-78% more available protein uptake (Note 2), and more available starches for energy. The amount of calories taken across the gut wall, fueled our bodies better and allowed for faster growth in organs that required more energy.

The brain requires 20 percent of our metabolic energy.
See - Ray Kurtzweil for Attachement Device
Book: How to Create a Mind - by Ra Kurtzweil

, as current evidence shows that our brain size increased 350% and blood flow to the brain increased 600%, clearly indicating our brain's energy requirements. With our large brain using 20% of metabolic energy and more when sleeping (Circadian Rhythm and Time-Restriced Feeding, TRF) our metabolism needed to produce more energy for our complex bodily systems and complex thinking. (Note 1)

In addition, higher energy source allowed for smaller intestines, better immune system, more reproduction, more time for hunting and social contact, and bigger brains. The brain is extremely expensive in metabolic terms, and uses about 20% of food calories. Humans have the biggest brain and the smallest gut among primates. (7,8)

The brain, heart, liver, and kidneys consume about 60% of the body’s energy intake thereby dominating resting human energy metabolism. The heart and kidneys are metabolically more active than the brain but, being larger, the brain takes a higher proportion of the body’s total energy needs, i.e. about 20–23% of the body’s total energy requirement despite representing only 2.0–2.3% of adult body weight (9,9a,b). Three major parameters linked to brain energy metabolism – cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism - can all be measured independently in humans using minimally invasive techniques. (9c,d)

is reflected in the human teeth, in that about 1.9 million years ago, they became smaller and less sharp. We took on human characteristics, and not those of meat eaters or leaf eaters. Our hip and waist bones got smaller giving the indication of smaller intestines. Humans became more efficient at using their calorie resources. (10,10a)

The brain is made almost entirely of fat (57%) and protein (38%), and contains very little carbohydrate (5%). Our modern brains grew up in a low glycemic index environment.

From the diagram and recent evidence, the last 200,000 years show a doubling of the brain size. The recent evidence comes from an area of the world where fish were introduced to out diet. The DHA and EPA fueled brain growth. Medical aspects of the low carbohydrate lifestyle | Prof. Tim Noakes, september/14 (Video). Professor Tim Noakes has a book and a web site Real Meal Revolution.

Attaching to the "Cloud" - the Brain Cloud Connection

How to Create a Mind - by Ray Kurzweil . According to Ray Kurtzweil, we will become attached to the "Cloud" and the "Brain Cloud Connection" will be real. We will see the emergence of Homo cloudus sapiens in 2029, and by 2045 Cloudus complexanus pluggedensis.

As chief architect at Google, he explains ... Ray Kurzweil - How technology will change the near future | July/2016. Ray describes the law of exponential growth and why predictions can be made ... Ray Kurzweil - Immortality By 2045 / Global Future 2045 | January/2015.

The brain will evolve into the cloud - emergence of homo cloudus and cloudus complexanus pluggedensis.
Mootest Pointest - Cloudus complexanus pluggedensis, bodyless needs only electricity.
Ray Kurzweil - Exponential power use, in 1000 years will require the entire energy output of the Sun.

with the invention of the cloud we will not need our body much longer ...



Fasting | the Normal State for Humans

in the biological world, most organisms exist in a fasting state and Eating is a Stress State. (Note 3) During starvation periods and lack of carbohydrate sources (seasonal), the formation of ketone bodies increases dramatically. Prolonged low levels of insulin result in both increased fatty acid release from adipose tissue, and increased amounts of the enzymes required to synthesize and utilize ketone bodies. Ketone fuel is more efficient and has less waste by products. (11) Modern elite runners are now proving that Ketogenesis Energy provides 50-80 Kcal vs 2-3 Kcal of glucose energy. This makes the human animal an excellent long distance runner.

Time restricted feeding, circadian rhythm and becoming a centenarian

, you are fasting. Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Fasting and Time-Restricted Feeding, TRF, allows mammals to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body sources. Both intermittent (IF) and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases.

The human organism has evolved DNA repair and DNA protection against oxidation and regeneration using the body's own stem cells. It has been shown that fasting and exercise builds new neurons in the CNS and the Brain. This regeneration response represents one of the most potent examples of comprehensive cellular reprogramming and appears to be functioning in virtually all organisms. (12,12a)

, like the Chinese with their Yin and Yang, believed in Balance and Harmony. When the body is out of balance, this caused diseases. Hippocrates believed that the body had 4 humors (body fluids): blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. When the humors were balanced, a person was healthy. The belief was that too much or too little of any of the humors caused disease. An excess of black bile in various body sites was thought to cause cancer. This Thinking is in line with The Metabolic Model of Cancer - The New/Old Frontier.

The origin of the word cancer is credited to the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who is considered the “Father of Medicine.” Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and carcinoma to describe non-ulcer forming and ulcer-forming tumors. The Roman physician, Celsus (28-50 BC), later translated the Greek term into cancer, the Latin word for crab.

DNA - and the Centenarian Diet, Aging, Cancer, Nutrition and DNA Repair

This theory of cancer was passed on by the Romans and was embraced by the influential doctor Galen’s medical teaching, which remained the unchallenged standard through the Middle Ages for over 1,300 years. During this period, the study of the body, including autopsies, was prohibited for religious reasons, which limited progress of medical knowledge.

of the body's energy production and a constant flow of nutrients. Cells have evolved a host of molecular pathways that can sense nutrient concentrations, both intracellular and extracellular, and quickly regulate gene expression and protein modification to respond to any changes. The body need a non-stress, i.e. sleep/fasting, time to repair and regenerate. No one has the all the answers yet, but we know that letting the body respond using its built in adaptations to Living and Repair of metabolic damage is important. (13,13a)

Quick Learning Video

Why fasting bolsters brain power: ... Dr. Mark Mattson, National Institute of Aging.

Quick Info Video

The Benefits of Intermittent Fasting: ... by Dr. Mercola.

Agriculture: Modern farming is a new development, about 10,000 years old, and has allow for the development of large scale societies and populations. Our big brain and intelligence have allowed for conquering our environment, and we have conquered bacterial disease and working on viruses. But, with refined foods new nutritional diseases have been introduced i.e. inflammation diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes and others within this century. For the first time, our life expectance is going down ... ? ... the Obesogenic Diet.

Tracing the evolution of the human diet from our earliest ancestors can lead to a better understanding of human adaptation in the past. It may also offer clues to the origin of many health problems we currently face, such as obesity and chronic disease.
The Economist, December 3, 2003.(14)
human diet evolution and longevity, can we live past 100 years of age
Representation of Modern Man and its diet. (15)


The Brain - Knowledge | Changing and Growing

Do not make the mistake that the brain is stagnant. Stress on the body changes everything. Dr. Lara Boyd describes how neuroplasticity gives you the power to shape the brain you want. After watching this, your brain will not be the same | Lara Boyd | TEDxVancouver | november/15 (16)

By learning new concepts, taking advantage of opportunities, and participating in new activities, you are physically changing who you are, and opening up a world of endless possibility. Diet becomes even more important as we grow older. Personalized medicine and personalized learning is the next frontier.

The new buzz words in science and medicine is the understanding of gene expression and diet. Nutrigenetics, Epigenetics, and Methylation The Role of Methylation and Epigenetics in Brain Disorders is showing how many neurotransmitters work, and this metabolism relies on DHA and DPA. Imbalances impair mental function leading to Depression, Antisocial disorders, Schizoaffective disorder, Bi-polar ... and more. The Role of Methylation and Epigenetics in Brain Disorders | dr. william j. walsh, august/15 (17)

Dr. Patrick's Latest Video

Sulforaphane and Its Effects on Cancer, Mortality, Aging, Brain and Behavior, Heart Disease & More - Dec/2016 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick

The body's own Stress Response is far superior to any supplement and Sulforaphane - Eat your Broccoli, plays a role. The Nrf2 pathway has been referred to as the “master regulator of antioxidant, detoxification and cell defense gene expression…”. Dr. Patrick refers to the Nrf2 pathway ... the body's strongest defense against oxidative stress ... and many diseases of the brain have a strong oxidative stress component.

The emerging science of epigenetics is providing insights into the impact of methylation imbalances on neurotransmission at serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and NMDA receptors, and also provides a roadmap for effective nutrient therapies. What is Methylation - Nutrient Solutions | Webinar by Dr Ben Lynch, september/15 (18,19) also Ref: ... What "Nutrigenomics and Epigenetics" can do for you? | contributor july/2016.



Ok - Now What?

Our modern society created a Nutritional Disease; therefore, we need a Nutritional Solution. Eating too many of the wrong carbohydrates too often is what causes blood sugar and insulin levels to rise, placing us at high risk for insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease (Type 3 Diabetes). Our bodies have evolved to handle whole food sources of carbohydrates like peppers, broccoli, onions, and tubers etc., but our bodies simply aren’t equipped to cope with modern refined carbohydrates like refined flour and sugar. Ref: The Premise for this Nutritional Solution.

by some doctors. According to Dr. Georgia Ede - Diagnosis: Diet and Preventing Alzheimer's -, points out that 80% of Alzheimer's patients have Insulin Resistance - or full blown Type 2 diabetes. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease Is easier than we think as researchers now understand that insulin resistance is a powerful force in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Dr. Ede explains ... It’s more accurate to think of it this way: Insulin resistance of the body is type 2 diabetes; insulin resistance of the brain is type 3 diabetes. They are two separate diseases caused by the same underlying problem: Insulin Resistance.

Mounting research also suggests Alzheimer’s (Diabetes of the Brain - Type 3) disease is intricately connected to Insulin Resistance; even mild elevation of blood sugar is associated with an elevated risk for dementia (mean age baseline was 76 - higher average glucose levels within the preceding 5 years were related to an increased risk of dementia ). (30) Diabetes and heart disease also elevate your risk, as all three conditions are rooted in Insulin Resistance. Say NO to Sugar and get your Exercise.

The brain is made almost entirely of fat (57%) and protein (38%), and contains very little carbohydrate (5%). Our modern brains grew up in a low glycemic index environment. For 2 million years of our evolution, we ate much less carbohydrate than we do now, and certainly no refined or processed carbohydrates. The brain needs blood sugar and insulin levels to be nice and even in order to keep brain chemistry stable. The Real Rub - we were never designed to use carbs as fuel. Also ref: ... Carb-Loading (debunked).

    Importance/benefits of fat and ketone bodies (Ketosis) in the Brain.

  1. Fat in general makes up approx. 80% of our brain and nervous system. Ref: ... this site Health Brain
  2. 50% of the body's fat is Satruated Fat. 11% arachidonic acid and 25% of fatty acids making up the brain neurons and cells, are DHA - Omega-3. Fats and Oil - Where did the Omega-3s Go? | contributor april/2016. (31)
  3. Carb-loading Debunked - as it has proven false and many elite athletes are now becoming Fat Adapted for best results. Just by pure math it can be shown why Carb loading is wrong, as we simply cannot store enough Carbs.
  4. Ketones are an abundant, stable and steady source of fuel, even in the absence of regular eating. We can store 100Kcal of fat energy as opposed to 2Kcal of carbs. Dr. Hasselbalch showed that a ketogenic state results in a substantial (39%) increase in cerebral blood Flow. [ Hasselbatch SG, et al. 1996]. (32)

Simple solution, avoid carbohydrates as they offer no known nutritional benefits. Carbohydrates are however packaged in food source organisms that do provide Longevity Vitamins, Our foods provide Phytonutrients, macronutrients, micronutrients (for critical DNA repair) (R1), Polyphenols, Phytosterols, Flavonoids, Lignans, Antioxidants, and Carotenoids, that do allow life to continue. Ref: 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols. (Resource 1,2,3)

Certainly avoid processed carbohydrates, fats and oils, and packaged and processed foods. A direct result of too many carbohydrates is Insulin Resistance functional manifested as Carbohydrate Intolerance. Dr. Volek discusses his current views on the benefits of a LCHF plan - Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | july/2016 and this site follows this type of plan with the addition of Dr. Ames' "Triage Theory" ... the Centenarian Diet.

What path are You On?




  1. A University of Adelaide-led project has overturned the theory that the evolution of human intelligence was simply related to the size of the brain, but rather linked more closely to the supply of blood to the brain. (20) The blood flow diagram directly correlates to the above brain size diagram. (21) To allow our brain to be so intelligent, it must be constantly fed oxygen and nutrients from the blood. Dr. Snelling and Ms. Bosiocic say ... "Throughout evolution, the advance in our brain function appears to be related to the longer time it takes for us to grow out of childhood. It is also connected to family cooperation in hunting, defending territory and looking after our young".
  2. Cooking denatures the proteins in food, this process is similar to what the acids do in the stomach. Both processes disrupts the normal alpha-helix and beta sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape. Ileal studies have shown that cooking denatures proteins and makes them more bioavailable.. (8,22) Researchers have shown that digestability goes from 51 % to 90 % when cooked vs raw. The energetic benefit of cooking increases bioavailability by approximately 78%.. (22) PowerPoint slides. (23)
  3. Fasting has been practiced for millennia, but, only recently, studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy metabolism, and bolster cellular protection. In lower eukaryotes, chronic fasting extends longevity, in part, by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways. Human trials are about start, but in animals intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease, and neurodegeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic dietary interventions. (24,24a,24b)
    Additionally, fasting state to feeding state triggers stem cell regeneration and growth, and has been shown to generate new brain cells. (25) The formation, maintenance and reorganization of synapses are critical for brain development and the responses of neuronal circuits to environmental challenges. (26)


living to 100
VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System
Curbing Cancer's Sweet Tooth

Dr. Tan is introducing Veterans with advanced cancer to a ketogenic LCHF - (high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate) diet. This eating plan starves cancer cells while still meeting a patient's nutritional needs.

Take Action
Enhancing hero-worthy care for
Our Nation's Veterans.

[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. Video The Leakey Foundation, Speaker Series lecture by Dr. Richard Wrangham, Professor at Harvard University, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human
  2. Video youTube, Medical aspects of the low carbohydrate lifestyle | Prof. Tim Noakes, september/14
  3. R1 PubMed, Effects of micronutrients on DNA repair. Collins AR, Azqueta A, Langie SA.
  4. Resource 1 ECJN, Table 1. Polyphenol and antioxidant content in the 100 richest foods (mg per 100 g or mg per 100 ml)
  5. Resource 2 ECJN, Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database, J Perez-Jimenez, V Neveu, F Vos and A Scalbert
  6. Resource 3, Phenol-Explorer is the first comprehensive database on polyphenol content in foods
  7. 1 Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins, by Courtney C. Babbitt, Lisa R. Warner, Olivier Fedrigo, Christine E. Wall, Gregory A. Wray
  8. 1a ScienceDirect - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 131, Issue 4, April 2002, Pages 653–673 Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens, C.Leigh Broadhurst, Yiqun Wang, Michael A. Crawford, Stephen C. Cunnaned, John E. Parkingtone, Walter F. Schmidta
  9. 2 Tree of Life web project, Patterns of Change and Development in Human Nutrition, Samir Hussain
  10. 3 Annual Reviews, Anthropology, Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas of the Human Brain, P. Thomas Schoenemann
  11. 4 NCBI,, Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids, White TD1, Asfaw B, Beyene Y, Haile-Selassie Y, Lovejoy CO, Suwa G, WoldeGabriel G.
  12. 5 Primate diet notes, Primate diet notes, overview of human diet evolution.
  13. 6 Scientific American. The fat-fueled brain: unnatural or advantageous, By Shelly Fan on October 1, 2013
  14. 7 youTube, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, by Dr. Richard Wrangham, Professor at Harvard University
  15. 8 youTube, University of California Television, CARTA: The Evolution of Human Nutrition
  17. 9a NCBI PubMed, PMID: 5551034, Metabolic rate and organ size during growth from infancy to maturity and during late gastation and early infancy. Holliday MA.
  18. 9b PubMed, Neurochem Res. 1999 Feb;24(2):321-9. Energetics of functional activation in neural tissues. Sokoloff L.
  19. 9c PubMed, Trends Neurosci. 2004 Aug;27(8):489-95. Energetic basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging. Shulman RG, Rothman DL, Behar KL, Hyder F.
  20. 9d PubMed, Neurochem Res. 2002 Dec;27(12):1641-7. PMID: 12515317 Energy consumption by phospholipid metabolism in mammalian brain. Purdon AD, Rosenberger TA, Shetty HU, Rapoport SI.
  21. 10 youTube, Humans: The Cooking Ape, a lecture by Richard Wrangham
  22. 10a youTube, What's Cooking?: The Meat and Potatoes of Human Evolution, Jeanne Sept
  23. 11 Rose Hulman edu, The Synthesis and Utilization of Ketone bodies, Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D.
  24. 12 Cell Press, 2016 Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan, Valter D. Longo and Satchidananda Panda
  25. 12a Cell Metabolism, Jun/2016, Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan, Valter D. Longo, Satchidananda Panda
  26. 13 Scitable by Nature Education, 2008, DNA Damage & Repair: Mechanisms for Maintaining DNA Integrity, By: Suzanne Clancy, Ph.D.
  27. 13a Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nutrient Sensing, Signaling & Regulation, Nick Zagorski and Gerald Hart
  28. 14 The Econonist, The Shape of things to come.
  29. 15 The Paleo Diet, web site, The Paleo diet in Short - What to Eat.
  30. 16 youTube, After watching this, your brain will not be the same | Lara Boyd | TEDxVancouver
  31. 17 youTube, The Role of Methylation and Epigenetics in Brain Disorders,dr. william j. walsh, august/15
  32. 18 youTube, What is Methylation | Webinar by Dr Ben Lynch, september/15
  33. 19 Seeking Health Educational Institute, Clinical Training site for Medical Professionals,
  34. 20 PHYS.ORG, Smarter brains are blood-thirsty brains, August 30, 2016
  35. 21 The Royal Society, Fossil skulls reveal that blood flow rate to the brain increased faster than brain volume during human evolution, Roger S. Seymour, Vanya Bosiocic, Edward P. Snelling, Aug/2016
  36. 22 JN, The Journal of Nutrition, 1998, Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques, Pieter Evenepoel, Benny Geypens, Anja Luypaerts, Martin Hiele, Yvo Ghoos4, and Paul Rutgeerts
  37. 23 JN, The Journal of Nutrition, 1998, Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques, PowerPoint Slides.
  38. 24 PubMed, Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. Longo VD, Mattson MP.
  39. 24a youTube, Valter Longo, Ph.D. on Fasting-Mimicking Diet & Fasting for Longevity, Cancer & Multiple Sclerosis.
  40. 24b Found My Fitness, Dr. Rhonda Patrick, iTunes, on Fasting-Mimicking Diet & Fasting for Longevity, Cancer & Multiple Sclerosis
  41. 25 USC NEWS, Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system, by Suzanne Wu, june/2014
  42. 26 PubMed, 2012, Involvement of PGC-1α in the formation and maintenance of neuronal dendritic spines, Aiwu Cheng, Ruiqian Wan, Jenq-Lin Yang, Naomi Kamimura, Tae Gen Son, Xin Ouyang, Yongquan Luo, Eitan Okun, Mark P. Mattson.
  43. 30 The New England Journal of Medicine, N Engl J Med 2013; 369:540-548, Glucose Levels and Risk of Dementia, Paul K. Crane, M.D., et al.
  44. 31 NCBI PubMed, Am J Physiol. 1996 May;270(5 Pt 1):E746-51. Changes in cerebral blood flow and carbohydrate metabolism diuring acute hyperketonemia, S.G. Hasselbalch, et al.
  45. 32 vimeo - The ‘Holy Grail’ of Primal Health, Vimeo: Nora Gedgaudas, C.N.S., C.N.T. Health: Benefits of a Fat-Based Caloric Intake for Body and Brain.

About Us

is a positive online community for seniors who are interested in longevity and becoming centenarians. Living to 100 years of age becomes a goal, and sharing and exploring this goal is an issue that matters to those in the golden years. A platform for the energetic, creative, and productive, to share life experiences by contributing your experiences on this site. Founded to explore quality living, healthy aging, longevity and becoming Centenarians.