Carbohydrates | Impact on Aging and Longevity
As it now turns out Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) are good, in fact essential. They help reduce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, (1). Present findings support adverse metabolic effects of refined carbohydrates and sugars and could also implicate other diseases, when there is a lack of SFAs. (2) The war on SFAs and Cholesterol is over and the evidence is being reviewed and conclusions reversed. (3,4,4a)
Carbohydrates have been an integral part of the human diet. Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha (cattails, bulrushes) as flour has been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago. (5) Starch grains from sorghum were found on grind stones in caves in Ngalue, Mozambique dating up to 100,000 years ago. (6,6a) (Note 1)
However, of the three macronutrients in our diet
Protein, Fat and Carbohydrates, only
carbohydrates are non-essential for human life. The carbohydrates of the past included up to 100 grams of fiber per day,
nothing like we eat today. Grains are essentially
Low micronutrient foods with
High carbohydrates. Modern tubers like the potato are a starchy food low in fiber high in carbohydrates,
Humans have hybridized foods for the last 10,000 years in favor of Palatability and Sweetness ("Less Bitter" - "Less Fiber") to satisfy our pleasure center,
e.g. our benzodiazepine and opioid systems (Brain). (7,7a) It is reported that almost
50% of Americans (JAMA-2016)
are "Pre-Diabetic" which by definition
contradicts eating carbohydrates. The low fat diet has
failed, it is time to abandon the nonsense of the last 50 years and our
Obesogenic Diet, eliminate the excessive consumption of carbohydrates (saccharides) and eat as we did 100 years ago which was a Low Carb High Fat, moderate protein
LCHF eating lifestyle. (Mercola - Volek)
We cannot solve problems by using the same kind of thinking, we used when we created them." ... Albert Einstein
Insulin Resistance | Insulin Resistance
Surprise, when people have high blood sugar they also have high insulin, how is that possible? Insulin is a powerful metabolic hormone that orchestrates how cells process vital nutrients. Insulin is the body's fat storage hormone and signals storage into adipose tissue. Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which cells fail to respond to the normal action of the hormone insulin.
The body produces insulin, in response to glucose intake. If blood sugar and insulin spike too high too often, cells will try to protect themselves from overexposure to insulin’s powerful effects by toning down their response to insulin becoming “insulin resistant”. The cells in the body become resistant to insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level.
The consumption of Sugar and Polyunsaturated Seed Oils combine in our diet to create inflammation in every blood vessel wall and in every tissue in every organ of the body.
People with Insulin Resistance are normally diagnosed with pre-diabetes and often have slightly higher levels of inflammation throughout their bodies. 49%-52% in the USA are now pre-Diabetic or Diabetic [Menke A, et al. JAMA, 2015]
In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The more insulin levels rise, the more insulin resistant cells become. Over time, this vicious cycle can lead to persistently elevated blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes.
Pre-Diabetic ≡ Diabetic ≡ Insulin Resistant ≡ Hyperinsulinemic
In a Nut Shell -
Inflammation is a complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective
response that involves immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Chronic inflammation is characterized by the simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.
Other conditions have this inflammation, too. Insulin resistance is linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, gout, heart and blood vessel disease, blood clots in your arteries, kidney disease, fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and rheumatoid arthritis. (8,8a)
From Dr. Gary Fettke - Dr. Georgia Ede, a Harvard- trained psychologist says ... “Despite swimming in a sea of glucose, brain cells in people with insulin resistance literally begin starving to death.”
Type 3 Diabetes is now being called
Alzheimer's by some doctors. According to
Dr. Georgia Ede - Diagnosis: Diet and Preventing Alzheimer's -,
points out that 80% of Alheimer's patients have
Insulin Resistance - or full blown Type 2 diabetes. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease Is easier than
we think as researchers now understand that insulin resistance is a powerful force in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Dr. Ede explains ...
It’s more accurate to think of it this way: Insulin resistance of the body is type 2 diabetes; insulin resistance of the brain is type 3 diabetes.
They are two separate diseases caused by the same underlying problem: Insulin Resistance.
Insulin resistance manifests functionally as Carbohydrate Intolerance. Of the three macronutrients in our diet (protein, fat and carbohydrates), only carbohydrates are non-essential (Dr. Tim Noakes) for human life. (org)
All digestible carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars in the intestines. The sugar is then absorbed into the blood, raising the blood glucose levels. This increases the production of the hormone insulin, our fat storing hormone. A low intake of carbs gives you a lower, more stable blood glucose, and lower amounts of insulin. This increases the release of fat from your fat stores and increases the fat burning.
Insulin resistance, is a condition of high insulin in the blood and in large amounts it prevents fat burning and stores surplus nutrients in fat cells. After a few hours, the body perceives a shortage of nutrients in the blood, creating feelings of hunger and cravings as a response to high carbohydrates in the diet, then we eat again trapped in a cycle of eating leading to weight gain. This is why a LCHF (Low Carb - High Fat) works. Ref: this site ... the Centenarian Diet.
The Real Rub (Rub)
Glucose level = 5.5 mmol/L or 100mg/dL:
Crain Medicine- A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Up! (RubADub)
Normal fasting: 70–99 mg/dl (3.9–5.5 mmol/L)
Normal 2 hours after meal: < 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L)
HbA1c: Normal without diabetes < 5.7%
The math clearly shows that we only have about 1 tsp of Glucose disolved in our blood. Consequently, it should be obvious that the quantities eaten in the current western diet are completely wrong - our bodies cannot resolve this overload. Insulin is a very weak modulator of blood sugar, its principle function is as a growth hormone and fat storage trigger i.e. "Survival". (Note 2,3)
The fact that doctors recommend to their patients to
Eat Carbohydrates is wrong. There is no known carbohydrate deficiency disease, and hence, no reason to eat carbs, however, they come with
the territory when eating fruits and vegetables. Our body has developed a method of using these carbs but only in a limited fashion. We have approximately 5 grams of glucose dissolved in our 5 liters of blood
(5.5 mmol/L or 100mg/dL) which equals about 1 tsp. (Note 2) From sheer math, we see that we are very limited to handling glucose, also,
insulin is really a
Growth Hormone and a trigger for fat storage. (RubADub-Dub)
What makes sucrose bad is that when hydrolyzed it becomes glucose and fructose. Dr. Mark Hyman on HFCS - High Fructose Corn Syrup Will Kill You. Fructose is a 5 carbon compound and 7 times more reactive in the body. Fructose metabolism creates 7 times more ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) (9) which are chemically reactive, such as peroxides and hydroxyl radicals. This may result in significant damage to cell structures.
Dr. Rober Lustig, FAT Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, points the finger directly at HFC, sucrose, and fructose as the cause of Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity. Dr. Gary Fettke maintains his site NOFructose.com and further explains the impact of fructose and our chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases.
All the cells in the body can process glucose, and the liver takes about 20% of the glucose and stores it as glucogen. Fructose, however, can only be processed in the liver, consequently, the liver gets depleted of many nutrients such as phosphates (ex. F1P pathway). This process produces waste products in the form of uric acid. Uric acid blocks an enzyme that makes nitric oxide, which is your body's natural blood pressure regulator. Hence your blood pressure rises, leading to hypertension. Elevated uric acid levels can also cause gout. Fructose activates glycerol creating triglycerides. This fructose metabolism leads to insulin resistance, liver insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
Ivor Cummins - "The Fat Emperor", gives an extensive analysis from an engineering studies point of view, and has accumulated references and data in graphical presentations ... and Ivor explains cholesterol and insulin resistance with a clear discussion ... Wanna know how to collapse your heart disease risk? Ok then. | Ivor Cummins BE(Chem), July/2016 . (10,11a)
- In reality, the majority of Heart Attacks are due to Insulin Resistance.
- LDL is a near-worthless predicator for cardiovascular issues. Low HDL is not good and a better indicator.
- Root causes: Sub-Opt Vit D, - Sub-Opt K2, C, Mg, - Excess Fructose and Carbohydrates.- Sub-Opt Omega 3 and Excess Omega 6, Smoking and Pollutants. (10,11)
- Insulin Resistance biometrics blows away all of the other biometrics (e.g. BP, 'Cholesterol' metrics, etc. etc.) in terms of direct connection to the disease and death. Ref: Book - by Dr. Joseph R. Kraft - Diabetes Epidemic & You. and Dr. Kraft's introductory video ... Diabetes Epidemic & You - an Introduction by Dr. Joseph R. Kraft, MD, MS, FCAP
- “Roads to Ruin?” The Pathways and Implications of Insulin Resistance | Ivor Cummins BE(Chem), March/2017 . where Ivor does a follow up and discusses IR vs. IS, as Insulin Resistance presents differently than Insulin Sensitivity. (11a)
Recent data on Insulin Resistance:
Dr. Thomas Dayspring aka "Dr. Lipid" and Dr. Kraft - Hyperinsulinemia - Diabetes Epidemic
Image and Data: The Fat Emperor - Ivor Cummins (11a)
The scoop on carbohydrates - It is true that "Fats"fat have more calories than "Carbohydrates", including sugar. But by that logic, a sugary beverage is better for you than a handful of "Nuts" which is "Nuts". That’s just not what the unbiased studies have shown. Looking only at calories ignores the metabolic effects of each calorie; the source of the calorie changes how you digest it and how you retrieve energy from it. (12) Counting calories alone doesn’t work because ultimately it matters where those calories come from. (13) Ref: ... this site Carbohydrates and Longevity | contributor - Oct/2016
Conclusion: the human animal was never intended to metabolize glucose/glycogen in large quantities, instead we metabolize and store fats. Insulin is a very weak hormone and just barely can regulate 100mg/dl in our blood. Fat-adaptation is the normal, preferred metabolic state of the human body. Sugar-dependency is an abnormal metabolic state that inevitably leads to insulin resistance and chronic disease. (16,16a)
We suffer from to much carbohydrates, hence, Carbohydrate Intolerance and Inflammation | contributor february/2017. Being able to mobilize and oxidize stored fat during exercise can reduce an athlete's reliance on glycogen. This is the classic "train low, race high" phenomenon, and it can improve performance, save the glycogen for the truly intense segments of a session, and burn more body fat. Ref: ... Hypothesis - Flight or Fight Response | contributor october/2016
Metabolic Syndrome - MetS | aka Insulin Resistance
aka Insulin Resistance
Metabolic Syndrome is a direct result of a "High Carbohydrate Diet". Dr. Jeff Volek's 2016 presentation at the Metabolic Therapeutics Conference represents the last 20 years of our understanding on our inflammation diseases and treatments based on a "LCHF" - Low Carbohydrate High Fat diet. Jeff Volek, PhD - Keto Diet Presentation at the 2016 Metabolic Therapeutics Conference | July/2016 (20) and Dr. David Diamond presents historical data which shows that the American Medical Association (AMA) knew we should not eat carbohydrates ... David Diamond, PhD - Fats and Carbohydrates, 2016 Metabolic Therapeutics Conference | July/2016 (22)
Insulin resistance is part of but not all of this condition. People with Metabolic Syndrome, (aka Syndrome X) have at least three of these traits: a large waist, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and blood glucose that is higher than normal. It raises your chances for diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Despite being higher in saturated fat (SFA), a LCHF diet decreases circulating levels of SFA. (21)
Metabolic Syndrome involves a series of abnormalities, of which Type 2 Diabetes is a part. The syndrome involves not only Type 2 Diabetes, but high fat levels in the person's blood, hypertension, decreased HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, blood clotting, inflammatory responses, and central obesity. Metabolic Syndrome has a high rate of Cardiovascular Disease associated with it, and is also referred to as, "Syndrome X".
Of the three macronutrients in our diet (protein, fat and carbohydrates), only
Carbohydrates are non-essential for human life.
Tim Noakes on Insulin Resistance and High Carbohydrate diets | august/2016.
Carbohydrate consumption leads to insulin secretion and a pro-inflammatory life style. A low carbohydrate diet results in greater improvement in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and adipocyte dysfunction
than a standard low fat diet for obese adults.
In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet results in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet. (21,22)
The Primal Blueprint Carbohydrate Curve - from Mark's Daily Apple
Mark Sisson, "Mark's Daily Apple", has been living the LCHF Diet and on his website has some of the best analysis anywhere
(as expected, as he has written over a dozen books and articles). He summarizes...
Carbohydrate intake is often the decisive factor in weight loss success and prevention of widespread health problems like Metabolic Syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes.
These average daily intake levels assume that you are also getting sufficient protein and healthy fats, and are doing some amount of Primal exercise.
Also ref: ... the Centenarian Diet.
Resource Tool: there are many new trials on nutrition and cancer ... and ClinicalTrials.gov - A service of the U.S. NIH is a registry and results
database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants conducted around the world. Dr. Jeff Volek along with
Dr. Stephen Phinney have re-written the
Atkins Diet and Dr. Volek explains the LCHF and ...
Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | July/2016. (22a,22b),
and from contributors ... Carbohydrates and Longevity | contributor October/2016.
Treating Metabolic Syndrome:
Drugs target individual markers of MetS but all have well known side effects.
Carbohydrate Restriction targets all the markers without side effects.
Just after WWII, the first warning were being reported in the news about the
Refined-Carbohydrate Disease. Interestingly, in the 1930's, food scientists realized that
refined grains were not providing enough nutrients. Consumers, particularly children, were developing symptoms of malnutrition. Thus, grain enrichment and fortification became standard. (23,24,25)
"... it's easier to fool people, than to convince them that they have been fooled!" ... Mark Twain
With the AMA, NIH, and FDA as our guardians, we have to ask
Why didn't we just quit processing grains? Could this be a failure of "Capitalism" ... as this implies that
There is no money in healthy people living long productive lives? After all we have cured childhood diseases, and most other biological diseases. Then we turn around and invent a new disease to
shorten out lives ...
the Refined-Carbohydrate Disease. (26,26a) References to
The Saccharine Disease (26b)
started in 1956 and go back as far as 1869 Tanner M.D., 1824-1871.
Research now shows that modern medical practices have caused Metabolic Syndrome, (aka Syndrome X). By recommending diets that are typically low in fat (particularly saturated fat) and high in complex carbohydrates, has led to substantial decline in the percentage of energy intake from total and saturated fats in the United States.
At the same time, it has spurred a compensatory increase in consumption of refined carbohydrates and added sugar, a dietary shift that may be contributing to the current twin epidemics of obesity and diabetes. (27) The changed landscape in obesity and dietary patterns suggests a need to reassess the dominant diet-heart paradigm and related dietary recommendations, i.e., the strategy of replacing total and saturated fats with carbohydrates.
Again, the AMA new this, as studies were being conducted on a LCHF (Low Carb - High Fat) diet and published in 1968, which showed that a 70% fat and 15% carbohydrate calorie intake dropped triglycerides into the normal zone. (28)
We knew how the cure Diabetes Mellitus in 1921 as outlined in The Principles and Practice of Medicine - Sir William Osler, MD, page 433, where he describes a Banting (Wiki) like diet an 1860's obesity fad diet). Banting ascribed to a LCHF - Low Carbohydrate High Fat eating plan where he took carbs below 20g/day and a maximum of 75g/day of proteins. (29)
The Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) has corrupted the science and paid off doctors since the 1960s. The JAMA (13) review from September found that the doctors involved with the study were in fact paid by the SRF. Doctors profited - while consumers made health decisions on the basis of questionable information. (13,29a,29b)
Meta Analysis | Refined Carbs vs. Obesity
Metabolic Corruption by Carbohydrates
Sugar Consumption vs. % Population Obesity
Hypothesis, from this chart it is indicated that there is more to the story of
Obesity over the last 60 years. This could be a case of the
Compounding Effects of Epigenetics. There have been 4 generations of
High Consumption of Carbs - Beyond a Metabolic Tolerance this defines
Carbohydrate Intolerance. We know that diet can change our gene expression through
The data is indicating that there is a threshold, 10kg/22lb per year/person, and of above this the body does not seem to be responding well to this dietary environment. Also, besides
Obesity, there is a
corresponding increase in diseases from Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation.
Ref: Nutrigenomics and Epigenetics | contributor July/2016.
After all, insulin is not designed to
Control Glucose, it is a growth hormone and regulates fat storage and growth.
Ref: Carbohydrates and Longevity | contributor October/2016.
Carbohydrates from Proteins |
when proteins turn into carbohydrates
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. It is one of the two main mechanisms humans and many other animals use to keep blood glucose levels from dropping too low (hypoglycemia). (WikiBooks)
Over consumption of proteins by
Humans is unnecessary. Proteins can function as carbohydrates, therefore, restricting carbohydrates is not enough to maintain lean body mass.
To deplete the liver of glycogens, the protein consumption needs to be restricted.
Humans, only need 1 g/kg lean body mass with balanced eating, since through
Autophagy, we recycle
our proteins and get 70% of our requirements from this recycle process. This would represent approximately 75 - 85 grams for the average person.
The balance of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates is important to optimum health, ... the Centenarian Diet balances these factors.
Excessive Protein Consumption and deamination of amino acids results in the production of ammonia. Ammonia is toxic, particularly to the central nervous system.
Knowing How Much Protein we need is critical, since we put
Excess Proteins, in the same category as
The major route (overview) for the excretion of ammonia is the creation and excretion of urea.
It is possible to consume protein in excess of the body’s ability to deal with it, (30)
and Ref: Autophagy - a New Science | contributor August/2017.
Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with physiological as well as pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, stress, infection, and cancer. mTOR is a critical regulator of autophagy induction, with activated mTOR suppressing autophagy, and negative regulation of mTOR promoting it. Autophagy provides energy through the turnover of intracellular proteins and organelles to guarantee rejuvenation and adaptation in various conditions. (31)
The mTOR pathway and cellular damage is important to the genome fidelity. Preventing poor metabolic health is what balance is all about. Cancers always occur in our bodies and our immune system fights them off. Optimal health is achieved when we control proteins and carbohydrates. Discussion: Dr Mercola and Dr D'Agostino on Ketogenic Diet | january/14. (32)
de novo Lipogenesis |
when carbohydrates turn into fatty acids
Due to high levels of Insulin Resistance in populations (est. 50%) it is becoming clear that the body uses de novo Lipogenesis (DNL) to convert glucose into fats for storeage.
This appears to be the mechanism on how a
High Carbohydrate diet does its damage. First sign that we are converting carbs to fat: Weight Gain with Chronic Inflammation
as a driver for auto-immune diseases i.e. metabolic syndrome.
Fatty acids are essential macromolecular cellular constituents serving critical structural and energetic roles. Synthesis of fatty acids endogenously (de novo lipogenesis - DNL) is traditionally thought to serve the purpose of converting excess carbohydrates into lipids for storage, because lipids are much more energy-dense than carbohydrate and are therefore a more efficient storage form. It is increasingly clear that fatty acids and their derivatives are also important signaling molecules that affect many fundamental physiologic processes. (35)
DNL is driven by two master transcriptional regulators that are widely expressed - Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 1c and Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein. Both regulate expression of key lipogenic genes, such as fatty-acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP-citrate lyase.
The rate of de novo lipogenesis has been shown to be significantly affected by dietary treatment. In lean subjects, de novo lipogenesis was significantly higher by a factor of > 2.5 after overfeeding with either sucrose or glucose. In obese subjects, overfeeding with sucrose resulted in a significant doubling of de novo lipogenesis. de novo lipogenesis predicts metabolic health in humans in a tissue-specific manner and is likely regulated by glucose dependent carbohydrate responsive element binding protein activation. (36,37)
In normal conditions DNL converts excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that are then esterified to storage triacylglycerols (TGs). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a component of the metabolic syndrome. The primary event of NAFLD is the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs). The DNL pathway has an end product of a saturated fat, palmaitic acid and becomes part of Hypertriglyceridemia. (38) This mechanism contributes to metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.
Ok - Now What?
Our modern society created a Nutritional Disease; therefore, we need a Nutritional Solution. But, doctors are not trained in nutrition, medicine as we know
it is in trouble, can we be better doctors than the AMA provides. We certainly can acquire the knowledge to ask better questions. The AMA has failed in their mission. Dr. Noakes gives a good talk on the problem ...
The Great Diet Controversy: UCT - Challenge Beliefs | Dr. Tim Noakes, november/2013
(30) and Dr. Mercola & Dr. Greger on How Not To Die | December/2015.
Dr. Mercola and Dr. Chutkan talk on
Food as Medicine - The Baby Connection and the importance of Gut Health ... referred to as
Complimentary or Alternative medicine ...
Dr. Mercola and Dr. Chutkan on Gut Health | February/2017. (32)
Dr. Chutkan has a 77% success rate of taking her patients
The current issue is that everyone responds differently to Carbohydrate Sensitivity → Intolerance. Hence, we see people that can use Sugars and many who develop chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Ref: ... Insulin Resistance.
Exercise ... is Good Stress, so avoid a sedentary lifestyle and avoid the
Colloquial Tag - Couch Potato.
The body has three to six (3-6) principle circulatory systems, depending on definitions and
All require muscle movement to function.
→ Cardiovascular - Heart, → Pulmonary - Lungs,
→ Systemic -Blood and Vessels, moved by our involuntary muscle system.
Simple solution, avoid carbohydrates as they offer no known nutritional benefits. Carbohydrates are however packaged in food source organisms that do provide Longevity Vitamins. We want and need Phytochemicals from our Diet, otherwise we suffer from malnutrition. The symptoms of malnutrition is what this site is all about.
Our foods provide Phytonutrients, macronutrients, micronutrients (for critical DNA repair) (R1), Polyphenols, Phytosterols, Flavonoids, Lignans, Antioxidants, and Carotenoids, that do allow life to continue. Ref: 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols. (Resource 1,2,3)
Certainly avoid processed carbohydrates, fats and oils, and packaged and processed foods. A direct result of too many carbohydrates is Insulin Resistance functional manifested as Carbohydrate Intolerance. Dr. Volek discusses his current views on the benefits of a LCHF plan - Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | july/2016 and this site follows this type of plan with the addition of Dr. Ames' "Triage Theory" ... the Centenarian Diet.
- Carbohydrates: All carbohydrates are made from linking together molecules of three simple sugars: glucose, fructose and galactose. These three sugars are classified as monosaccharides, from the words for single and sugar. Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of two linked simple sugars. All carbohydrates that you consume from foods are digested into monosaccharides before they are absorbed by your body. Sucrose is rapidly broken down into individual glucose and fructose molecules.
- The sugar reserve in your blood is glucose. Glycogen, the molecule that stores energy in your muscles and liver, is composed of long chains of glucose. If you consume too many carbohydrates in your diet,
the high levels of blood glucose must be accounted for. After the energy stores in your body are refilled, excess sugar can be removed as waste or stored as fat.
An average human has roughly 5 litres of blood flowing throughout their body. How much sugar, when dissolved into 5 litres, will add up to 99 mg/dl? Well, one litre contains 10 decilitres, so we need to multiply 99 mg per dl by 10. This tells us there are 990 mg of sugar in one litre of “healthy” blood, approx. 1g/l.
Sucrose consists of equal parts glucose and fructose. Your body must convert fructose into glucose before you can use it for energy through a biochemical process called glycolysis.
This is primarily accomplished in your liver. A high intake of sucrose, due to the fructose content, can be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, due to the high concentration of sugar in the liver,
according to a research study in the "Journal of Hepatology." Consuming pure glucose does not lead to an elevated risk of fatty liver disease.
An elevation in glucose leads to a release of insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas that controls how your cells absorb certain nutrients from the blood stream. Fructose does not lead to an elevation in insulin. This is particularly important for diabetics, who cannot produce or respond to insulin in a normal manner. However, sucrose will lead to an elevation in blood glucose. Diabetics should avoid foods high in both glucose and sucrose. High consumption of either sucrose or glucose can elevate your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.