The Gut - Intestines

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Guts - and the Centenarian Diet

Intestines and healthy Aging | Healthy Gut Microbiome

Gut microbiome and living to 100
Brain-Gut-Microbe communication in Health and Disease. (Ref 1)

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is actually two organism at the same time. We are 30 trillion plus human cells working together, and another 30 trillion plus bacteria cells working to support the host. (1,1a,1b) The Gut Microbiota, is now being treated as its own organ. Leading reserchers at Stanford The Good Gut: by Justin and Erica Sonnenburg and their facebook page, "The Good Gut" (2).

New understandings of the microbiome such as: Mind-altering microbes | Elaine Hsiao at TEDxCaltech If the intestines were stretch out flat, the surface area would cover a tennis court, yet this is 1/3 the size of primates. (Image: Frontiers in Physiology - Ref 1)

The microflora of the intestinal microenvironment as a unit has important protective, metabolic, and trophic functions. Resident bacteria serve a central line of resistance to colonization by exogenous microbes and thus assist in preventing the potential invasion of the intestinal mucosa by an incoming pathogen. A bad diet changes this balance. (Key)

adjusts physiological processes to diurnal environmental variations. (2,2a) It is found that intestinal microbiota biogeography and metabolome also undergo diurnal oscillations which regulates the host metabolites, epigenetic and transcriptional programs, and the microbiota regulates distant sites in the our/host such as circadian liver transcriptome and detoxification metabolism. Cellular metabolism is greatly affected by the activity of the circadian clock, ... Ref: Circadian Rhythm, our Metabolic Clock | contributor august/2016.

For Example: a Vitamin D deficiency changes the intestinal microbiome reducing B vitamin production in the gut. The resulting lack of pantothenic acid adversely affects the immune system, producing a "pro-inflammatory" state associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. (2b)

1950's experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins. Review of the scientific literature shows that pantothenic acid does not have a natural food source, it is supplied by the normal intestinal bacteria. (2b,2c)

- we are well aware that diet plays a role in our heart's health. Now, scientists are learning more about how the trillions of bacteria dwelling deep inside the human digestive tract can affect the risk of cardiovascular disease. (3) Collectively known as the gut microbiota, these microbes assist with digestion, but also make certain vitamins, break down toxins, and train your immune system. The Gut as a Second Brain - The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems (3a,3b,3c)

Mouth and gut bacteria and living to 100 or living past 100 Note: The Oral Microbiome is also important and 80% of systemic diseases can be first observed in the mouth. Your mouth is your "gateway to total body wellness." Thousands of studies have linked oral disease to systemic disease. (4,4a,4b) i.e. Avoid Mouthwashes and Fluoridated Toothpaste. In addition there are Hidden Antibiotics - Triclosan in toothpastes.

Latest: The SAD is SAD - Dr. Kimberly Krautkramer and her team, demonstrate that microbial colonization regulates global histone acetylation and methylation in multiple host tissues in a diet-dependent manner: ... consumption of a “Western-type (SAD)” diet prevents many of the microbiota-dependent chromatin changes that occur in a polysaccharide-rich diet. (5)

Our paleo ancestors used Fats/Ketones as their primary fuel source. "Factoid - WMDs had not been invented Yet!" Fiber and the carbohydrates that comes with it are turned into Short-Chained Fatty Acids - SCFAs in the gut during bacterial fermentation (Nature) which then become a primary energy source and building blocks for DNA and Cellular growth and repair. SCFAs can cross the Blood-brain barrier and contribute to brain health. The short chain fatty acids (less than 8 carbons), are important for colon health and are the primary energy source for colonic cells and are anti-carcinogenic as well as anti-inflammatory, important for keeping colon cells healthy. (6)

Nature's Supreme Example:
... Gut Bacteria Symbiosis

gut bacteria and living to 100 or living past 100

Giraffe eat Only - Acacia leaves, but have no malnutrition. Their Gut Microbiome can produce all the micronutrients needed for the animal to flourish and survive.

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Our ancestors ate on the order of 100g to 150g of fiber per day. And these were from many sources and fostered a large diverse community of bacteria. 10,000 years of selective farming has bred out much of the fiber in favor of "softer" and "tastier" foods. "Palatability and Less Bitter" or Hyper-Palatables and referenced in Dr. Pamela Peeke's published works and her book The Hunger Fix.

Contrary to popular belief, Fruits, Nuts, and Melons - African Bush Foods, (11,11a) are available year round in Africa (Equatorial Climate). Also, Tubers - Lost Crops of Africa (11b,11c), can be dug up at any time and provide energy and the fiber (resistant starches) our gut microbiome needs.

A PodCast interview between Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Justin and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg, talk about "The Good Gut". The large intestine is a driver of inflammation by the manufacturing of co-factors and energy or lack thereof. Dr Rhonda Patrick on Inflammation, Modafinil & Sensory Deprivation, and feeding your gut | september/2015 What the microbiome does and does not do is important to gut health and the health of the host organism, affecting aging, longevity, metabolism, and neurodegenerative disease.

Non-digestible carbohydrates influence specific aspects of the immune function, particularly since the intestine embodies quantitatively the largest proportion of immune tissue in mammals. (13,13a) Furthermore, nearly all fibers are fermented to some extent, producing short-chain fatty acids - SCFAs, also known as volatile fatty acids - VFAs (wiki) (13b,13c). The role of SCFAs is linked to health promoting effects, including a reduced risk of inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in addition the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by the anaerobic intestinal microbiota, have been shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on mammalian energy metabolism (14,14a).

New knowledge: Mother's milk is high in HMO's, which the infant cannot digest, but, now we know that the mother is passing maternal immune cells and antibodies "maternal educational immunity", and feeding the Gut Microbiota which she inoculated into the baby as the baby passed down the vaginal birth canal. The Gut Microbiota then grows into a community and produces many of the vitamins and micronutrient compounds needed by the infant. (14a,14b,14c)


The Gut Microbiome | Microbial Biosynthesis - SCFA

Of the three main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; shown in red), acetate can be produced by many enteric bacteria from pyruvate via acetyl-CoA and also via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway by acetogens, 
			such as Blautia hydrogenotrophica. Butyrate is formed from two molecules of acetyl-CoA by several Firmicutes, and the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase is usually used to catalyse the last enzymatic step41. 
			The main propionate production pathway is the succinate pathway, which is used by Bacteroidetes to generate propionate from carbohydrates and by some Firmicutes to produce propionate from lactate or succinate. 
			Two other propionate formation pathways are found in some gut bacteria: the acrylate pathway, which uses lactate, and the propanediol pathway, which uses deoxyhexose sugars (such as fucose and rhamnose)40.
			 Pathways that are involved in hydrogen metabolism and ethanol production are also shown. The bacterial species that are shown are based on studies of cultured isolates of dominant species and metagenomic 
			 analyses and are thus not exhaustive. Archaea are shown in orange, Bacteroidetes are shown in grey, Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) are shown in blue, Ruminococcaceae (Firmicutes) are shown in purple, 
			 Negativicutes (Firmicutes) are shown in green and Proteobacteria are shown in brown. DHAP, dihydroxyacetonephospate; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate. (15,15a)

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Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Major Microbial Metabolites. (15,15a)

promote brain growth, and impact obesity and longevity (e.g. SCFA cancer inhibitors). The three main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; shown in red) along with gas byproducts (Farts, if you are interested). These are pathways that are responsible for the biosynthesis of the major microbial metabolites that result from carbohydrate fermentation and bacterial cross-feeding. This ecosystem has trillions (1,000,000,000,000's) of member and its taxonomy, and metagenomics is just now being explored.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the human intestinal microbiota contributes to the aetiology of colorectal cancer (CRC), not only via the pro-carcinogenic activities of specific pathogens but also via the influence of the wider microbial community, particularly its metabolome (Wikipedia). Recent data have shown that the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate function in the suppression of inflammation and cancer. (15,15c,15d,15e)

Gut microbiome and living to 100 You can test your microbiome and start to get an understanding of how modern living effects you as a living organism. uBiome has the tools needed to make decision about your health and your eating habits. Our symbiotic microbial populations perform essential functions, including digesting food, synthesizing vitamins, and regulating all the metabolic functions in the body. A poor mix of microbes in the gut microbiome impairs the immune system as we now know that our immune response starts in the gut ... uBiome - How to Get Your Microbiomes Sequenced.


Hippocrates | Death Sits in the Bowels

The bowel toxemia theory has historical roots extending as far back as Hippocrates. In 400 B.C. he stated that, ...death sits in the bowels... and ...bad digestion is the root of all evil...., ... to eat when you are sick, is to feed your sickness, however today, most of our ills are caused by our modern society. The 20th Century Diet (SAD is SAD'er) will be our downfall in the 21st Century. The Standard American Diet Sad is an "Extinction Level Event". What kills people today (non-infectious diseases) is totally different than what killed people just 3 generations ago (infectious diseases and malnutrition). (16)

... coronary thrombosis, is due to excessive consumption of sugar. It is generally believed that about 90 percent of people with high blood fats, that is, high blood cholesterol or high blood triglycerides, owe this to the excess conversion of carbohydrates into fat. There is scant evidence that this is due to the fat content in the diet. In fact the evidence suggests that this is not nearly as relevant as is the excessive consumption of sugar. Studies have shown that sucrose, for example, is very quickly taken up by the liver and converted into fat. The whole question has to be re-examined, but my own conclusion is that although it is important to have a proper level of fat, it is much more important not to increase one's carbohydrate intake if one wishes to protect oneself against having a coronary occlusion.
The final condition is the B.Coli infection due to the excessive content of starch and sugar in the gut, which provides a nutrient medium for organisms which we do not particularly wish to have in our body. These are called B. Coli conditions.
... if the consumption of refined foods is excessive, a disease called the saccharine disease is produced. This has physical and psychiatric manifestations.

The 20th Century Diet -

It is increasingly evident that human diseases are most often related to lifestyle, and should in theory be preventable. The stress of modern life, our reduced physical activity, and our consumption of manipulated and processed foods, and of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, all contribute to our decreasing resistance to disease. Starving our microbial self with a diet dificient in microbiota accessible carbohytrates (fiber) has deleterious consequences. (18) A diet short on fiber is linked to poor health. (19)

Much evidence supports the fact that our genes, adapted during millions of years to the lifestyle of our prehistoric ancestors, tolerate poorly the dramatic changes in lifestyle that have occurred, especially in food habits during the past 100 years. (20) Dr. Andrew Rostenberg from Red Mountain Clinic shows what has happen to the 20th Century to diet ... Fire in the Belly - The 7 Steps to Healthy Digestion | Dr. Rostenberg, september/2014

Gut microbiota for longevity and living to 100
Altering Microflora Has Long-Term Consequences - Dr. David Williams.

Dr. David Williams explains that we're delving into uncharted territory when we start injecting strange, fractionated viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens into our bloodstream with the hope our immune system will be able to deal with them. What might be even worse is the effect this has long term on our microbial flora (gut microbiome) and that of future generations (Epigenetics | contributor). Ref: Lifestyle Habits That Damage Gut Bacteria - by Dr. David Williams | september/2016 . And yes, we can be too clean ... Healthy Home - and Longevity.

The Importance of Normal GIT Microflora

Gut microbiome and living to 100 The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest interfaces between the outside world and the human internal environment. The microflora of the gastrointestinal tract represents an ecosystem of the highest complexity. The microflora is believed to be composed of over 50 genera of bacteria accounting for over 500 different species. The adult human GIT is estimated to contain 3.9 x 1013 viable microorganisms, which is more than the number of eukaryotic cells found within the human body. Some researchers have called this microbial population the microbe organ, an organ similar in size to the liver (1-1.5 kg in weight). This microbe organ is now recognized as rivaling the liver in the number of biochemical transformations and reactions in which it participates. (1b,23,23a)

Gut microbiome and living to 100

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Ron Sender, Shai Fuchs, Ron Milo, Estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body (1b)

we begin our lifelong interaction with good and bad, helpful or hostile microbes, while in parallel we are building up our own unique gut microbiome. The first two to three years of life is a dynamic process and we think it is vital to establishing a health immune system. It is increasingly seen as a critical window for immune system development. University of Bern in Switzerland, Dr. Kathy McCoy says, "We are more a superorganism than just human, and we need to adjust to that. Our combined gut microbiome is larger than our liver and is an organ in the same way." (24)

Gut microbiome and living to 100 The National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Human Microbiome Project have determined that the human gut microbiome alone is home to 30 trillion bacteria - equal to the number of cells in the human body. In addition, it also contains around 8 million protein-coding genes, 360 times as many as in the human genome.

Microbiomics has shown that the human body is home to an entire ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microbes. They play an important role in regulating many physiological processes. Penn Medicine, Microbiomics: The next Big Thing, | Lisa J. Bain, july/14, (25).


The role of Cooking in Nutrition | Catch 22

Cooking food does destroy many of the enzymes in a food needed to digest that food. This is because enzymes are proteins and they become denatured. (Note 1) Cooking food does change to the value of the food in many different ways, and some foods release their nutrients more readily when cooked. A key element is the natural enzymes thay come along with the vegetables.

Enzymes are catalysts which speed up and facilitate reactions in our body. In fact, some biochemical reactions will not even occur without these enzymes. It is beneficial to eat some of our vegetables in the raw state and Dr. Mercola ... (Mercola eats - 85% raw) and from our contributors ... Raw vs. Cooked Vegetables | contributor May/2016 evaluates our requirememts for raw food enzymes. See also: Snacks, Salads, and Smoothies (3 S's).

However, we now know we are feeding 2 organisms and the gut microbiota needs its share, particularly fiber. Cooking foods Soft Food Diet, produces a net gain in available energy which our large brain and small intestines benefit from. Dr. Richard Wrangham and his team and other researchers, have shown that the Soft Food Diet, has benefited human evolution and still benefits us today. Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human | Dr. Richard Wrangham | february/2013. (30) and Dr. Wrangham's book Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human .


Ok - Now What?

Anti Aging Nutrition for any Age

are the primary effort of every living animal on this planet. Even plants must seek nutrition and fertile soils with a living microbiome - soil health, to thrive. Humans are no different, as we sometimes forget why we eat. We carry our own microbiome - guts and are seeking Energy for survival, and Nutrition for growth and disease control. Supplying the body with proper nutrition is our reason for eating. ... D. S. McGerk | april/16. What's Cooking?: The Meat and Potatoes of Human Evolution ... Dr. Jeanne Sept | july/13. Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human ... Dr. Richard Wrangham | february/13. The rise of Omega 6 fats, and where did the Omega 3's go from our food sources ... D. S. McGerk | may/16




  1. Cooking denatures the proteins in food, this process is similar to what the acids do in the stomach. Both processes disrupts the normal alpha-helix and beta sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape. Ileal studies have shown that cooking denatures proteins and makes them more bioavailable.. (30,31) Researchers have shown that digestability goes from 51 % to 90 % when cooked vs raw. The energetic benefit of cooking increases bioavailability by approximately 78%.. (32) PowerPoint slides. (33)


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[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. Video youTube Fire in the Belly - The 7 Steps to Healthy Digestion. Dr. Rostenberg.
  2. Nature Natrue - International Journal of Obesity, The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis, C S Byrne, E S Chambers, D J Morrison and G Frost
  3. Ref 1 Frontiers of Physiology, Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease, Sue Grenham, Gerard Clarke, John F. Cryan, Timothy G. Dinan
  4. 1 Science News, Jan/2016, Body’s bacteria don’t outnumber human cells so much after all, BY TINA HESMAN SAEY
  5. 1a Nature, Scientists bust myth that our bodies have more bacteria than human cells, Alison Abbott, Jan/16
  6. 1b Cold Springs Lab - bioRxiv, Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body, Ron Sender, Shai Fuchs, Ron Milo
  7. 2 The Sonnenburg Lab, The Good Gut, Taking control of your weight, your mood, and your long term health, Justin and Erica Sonnenburg
  8. 2a Cell Volume 167, Issue 6, p1495–1510.e12, 1 December 2016, Microbiota Diurnal Rhythmicity Programs Host Transcriptome Oscillations, Christoph A. Thaiss
  9. 2b NCBI PubMed, Med Hypotheses. 2016 Sep;94:103-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2016.07.007. Epub 2016 Jul 14. Vitamin D deficiency changes the intestinal microbiome reducing B vitamin production in the gut. The resulting lack of pantothenic acid adversely affects the immune system, producing a "pro-inflammatory" state associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Gominak SC.
  10. 2c, Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Disease, Parth J Parekh, Luis A Balart and David A Johnson.
  11. 3 Gut reaction: How bacteria in your belly may affect your heart, Julie Corliss, July/2016.
  12. 3a NCBI PMC, Annals of Gastroenterology, The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems Marilia Carabotti, Annunziata Scirocco, Maria Antonietta Maselli, Carola Severi.
  13. 3b NCBI PMC, Psychobiotics and the gut-brain axis: in the pursuit of happiness, Linghong Zhou, Jane A Foster
  14. 3c PubMed, 2011, Metabolic and hedonic drives in the neural control of appetite: who is the boss? Berthoud HR
  15. 4 NCBI PMC, Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: a bidirectional relationship, Jemin Kim and Salomon Ama
  16. 4a American Dental Hygienists Association-US, INFLAMMATION: The Relationship Between Oral Health and Systemic Disease, By JoAnn R. Gurenlian, RDH, PhD
  17. 4b eMedicine MedScape, Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseases, Author: Heather C Rosengard, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD.
  18. 5 CELL Molecular Cell, DOI:, Diet-Microbiota Interactions Mediate Global Epigenetic Programming in Multiple Host Tissues, Kimberly A. Krautkramer 2016
  19. 6 Frontiers of Microbiology, Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids and their Link with Diet and Human Health, David Rios-Covian,
  20. 11 African Expedition, African Expedition Bush Food.
  21. 11a Agroforestry World, The little-understood indigenous African fruit trees, BY DAISY OUYA � AUGUST 7, 2013
  22. 11b The National Academies Press, LOST CROPS of AFRICA,
  23. 11c UN FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Paper 3: Importance of root crops in Africa, by Mr. Fran�ois Ngopya, FAO Statistician/SAFR
  24. 13 NCBI PubMed, Early nutrition and the development of immune function in the neonate. Kelly D, Coutts AG
  25. 13a USDA, Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber (2001), National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.
  26. 13b NCBI PubMed, Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Bugaut M, Bentejac M.
  27. 13c APS, American Physiological Society, Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species, E. N. Bergman
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  29. 14a ScienceDaily, High dietary fiber intake linked to health promoting short chain fatty acids
  30. 14b The Sonnenburg Lab, The Good Gut, Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Justin and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg
  31. 14c UCR Today, University of Califronia, Riverside, Vaccinating Babies Without Vaccinating Babies, By Iqbal Pittalwala, September/2016
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  33. 15a PubMed, Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon. Louis P, Duncan SH, McCrae SI, Millar J, Jackson MS, Flint HJ.
  34. 15b PubMed, Phylogenetic distribution of three pathways for propionate production within the human gut microbiota. Reichardt N, Duncan SH, Young P, Belenguer A, McWilliam Leitch C, Scott KP, Flint HJ, Louis P.
  35. 15c PubMed, The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer, Petra Louis, Georgina L. Hold, Harry J. Flint
  36. 15d Nature Review, The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer, Petra Louis, Georgina L. Hold, Harry J. Flint
  37. 15e Nature Review, The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer, Petra Louis, Georgina L. Hold, Harry J. Flint
  38. 16 youTube, Why Exercise Really is the Best Medicine, by Daniel Lieberman, Harvard.
  39. 17 A Hoffer, ORTHOMOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, VOLUME 3, NUMBER 4, 1974, Pp. 231-239, Calories, Protein, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and the Saccharine Diseases
  40. 18 Cell Metabolism, AJHG, Starving our Microbial Self: The Deleterious Consequences of a Diet Deficient in Microbiota-Accessible Carbohydrates, Erica D. Sonnenburg, Justin L. Sonnenburg
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  43. 23 Intestinal Dysbiosis The Causes of Intestinal Dysbiosis: A Review, Jason A. Hawrelak, BNat (Hons), PhD Candidate and Stephen P. Myers, PhD, BMed, ND
  44. 23a Nature, 2016, Scientists bust myth that our bodies have more bacteria than human cells, Alison Abbott.
  45. 24 Prof. Kathy McCoy, Assistant Professor, Gastroenterology & Mucosal Immunology
  46. 25 Penn Medicne, PDF file, Microbiomics: The next Big Thing, by Lisa J. Bain, july/14.
  47. 26 youTube, Dr. Richard Wrangham, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human.
  48. 30 youTube, University of California Television, CARTA: The Evolution of Human Nutrition
  49. 31 youTube, Humans: The Cooking Ape, a lecture by Richard Wrangham
  50. 32 JN, The Journal of Nutrition, 1998, Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques, Pieter Evenepoel, Benny Geypens, Anja Luypaerts, Martin Hiele, Yvo Ghoos4, and Paul Rutgeerts
  51. 33 JN, The Journal of Nutrition, 1998, Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques, PowerPoint Slides.

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is a positive online community for seniors who are interested in longevity and becoming centenarians. Living to 100 years of age becomes a goal, and sharing and exploring this goal is an issue that matters to those in the golden years. A platform for the energetic, creative, and productive, to share life experiences by contributing your experiences on this site. Founded to explore quality living, healthy aging, longevity and becoming Centenarians.