Heart and Blood

  Cardiovascular System and Longevity ...?


Bulk Supplements for nutritional requirements.
cell 10 - 10

Cardiovascular System - and the Centenarian Diet

Nutrition is not alternative medicine, it is the foundation of life and the driving force of health. Root Cause - functional medicine is becoming mainstream" ... 70 Going On 100.

Heart nutrition and living to 100, and becoming a healthy centenarian.

A TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE TO REVOLUTIONIZE CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCE THROUGH REALISTIC SIMULATION

This is particularly important when it comes to the Heart. Not only does it need nutrition, but it is an autonomic double pump that is run by its own electrical system. (Currently, much discussion on how this pump works, or even if it is a pump.) This system relies on blood chemistry with the right ions in solution. Any imbalance in the Na+/K+ ATPase ion transporter (Wiki), which is a critical functioning part of every animal cell, and cellular malnutrition and dysfunction occurs.

, is particularly sensitive to any dysfunction in diet... ref The Heart's Electrical System and Abnormal Rhythms | contributor - june/2016. Also, (Note 1,2,3) and, too little [Na+] is just as bad as too much. (JAMA, SALT)

he SA node is the heart's natural pacemaker. The SA node consists of a cluster of cells that are situated in the upper part of the wall of the right atrium 
			(the right upper chamber of the heart). The electrical impulses are generated there. The SA node is also called the sinus node.

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The Chemistry of the Heart Beat. (Video,1,2)

, also known as the circulatory system, is the transportation system of the body. Nutrients are moved out to capillaries where Diffusion can take place. The principle of diffusing nutrients across cell walls goes back 3,000,000,000 (3 Billion years) and is still how single cell orgaisms work.

The major structures that make this possible are the heart, blood vessels and blood, and are driven by our involuntary muscle system. The heart pumps the blood in order to move nutrients through the blood vessels to nourish and to remove metabolic wastes from the body. The Lymphatic - Lymph, also delivers T-cells, nutrients and removes waste products, but requires our voluntary muscles to contract and provide circulation, i.e. ... movement and Exercise.

 


 

The Heart | A Double Pump

Quick Training Video

Cardiovascular System In Under 10 Minutes CTE Skills.com, 2015.

, (Pulmonary - right side "Oxygenates", and Systemic - left side "Circulates") and each side is stimulated by an electrical signal which begins in a group of cells called the sinus node or sinoatrial (SA) node. The SA node is located in the right atrium. In a healthy adult heart at rest, the SA node sends an electrical signal to begin a new heartbeat 60 to 100 times a minute. From the SA node, the electrical signal travels through the right and left atria. It causes the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. (3,4)

The electrical signal then moves down to a group of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node, located between the atria and the ventricles. Here, the signal slows down slightly, allowing the ventricles time to finish filling with blood. The electrical signal then leaves the AV node and travels to the ventricles. It causes the ventricles to contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. The ventricles then relax, and the heartbeat process starts all over again in the SA node.

Cardiovascular system and living to 100

Cardiac muscle shares a few characteristics with both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, but it has some unique properties of its own. Not the least of these exceptional properties is its ability to initiate an electrical potential at a fixed rate that spreads rapidly from cell to cell to trigger the contractile mechanism. This property is known as Autorhythmicity. Neither smooth nor skeletal muscle can do this. Even though cardiac muscle has autorhythmicity, heart rate is modulated by the endocrine and nervous systems. (5) (Note 3)

Quick Training Video

The Circulatory System -
by Dale Holadia, 2012.

, the CV, circulatory system, is working on Hydrodynamics - Hydrostatic Pressures, and the "Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic"" properties of water and lipids. Physiologic chemistry is a “customized form of chemistry” because all the reactions take place in a water solution at the same temperature and neutral pH. In contrast, laboratory chemistry uses an array of liquids, heat and pH fluctuations to make and break molecules.

Because of our metabolism is the chemistry of liquid water and lipids, with a neutral pH and constant temperature, we must use Enzymes (which catalyzes a chemical reaction) in conjunction with four ions that are particularly important to explanations of physiology. They are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl–) and calcium (Ca++).

 

Blood Vessels | Closed circulation system

Nutrient transport & Garbage collection

Blood is driven through the vascular system of arteries and veins by the difference in blood pressure between the arterial and venous sides of the circulation. Mean arterial pressure, the driving force behind blood flow is maintained at a set point of about 100 mmHg [millimeters of mercury] by a continuously active neural feedback loop.

Live long and prosper - blood vessel structures

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is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide (NO) and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. (6)

Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduction of the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and/or an increase in endothelium-derived contracting factors. The endothelium possesses the ability to modulate vascular tone by the release of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor substances, principally, NO and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and endothelin. An imbalance between NO, EDRF, and endothelin may contribute to the alteration in vascular tone characteristic of cardiovascular disease. (7)

endothelian dysfunction and living to 100
Jeong-a Kim et al. Circulation. 2006;113:1888-1904 (7)

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Glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and inflammation underlie reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction that contribute to linkage between metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CAD).

endothelian dysfunction and living to 100
Jeong-a Kim et al. Circulation. 2006;113:1888-1904 (7)

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Pathway-specific insulin resistance creates imbalance between prohypertensive and antihypertensive vascular actions of insulin exacerbated by compensatory hyperinsulinemia. SNS indicates sympathetic nervous system.

... there does appear to be a Reciprocal Relationships Between Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction has also been associated with obesity, elevated C-reactive protein, and chronic systemic infection (yes, smoking, inflammation, high-carbs, present as Chronic Infection, i.e. your screwing with your blood and your guts).

Glucotoxicity refers to the structural and functional damage in the beta cells and target tissues of insulin, caused by chronic hyperglycemia. The multiple metabolic aberrations induced by chronic hyperglycemia in the beta-cell include increased sensitivity to glucose leading to Insulin Resistance. The detrimental effect of excessive glucose concentrations is referred to as glucotoxicity. (8)

Elevated levels of free fatty acids (lipotoxicity) and hyperglycaemia (glucotoxicity) have toxic effects and in many humans is presenting in the pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic Syndrome has the characteristics of Lipotoxicity - distinctive dyslipidemia characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, elevated blood levels of apolipoprotein B, small, dense LDL cholesterol, and low levels of HDL cholesterol. (9)

One of the key vascular actions of insulin is to stimulate production of the potent vasodilator NO from endothelium. NO, an important determinant of endothelial function, is produced in vascular endothelium by activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Availability of L-arginine (substrate for eNOS) and enzymatic cofactors (NADPH, flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD], flavin mononucleotide [FMN], and tetrahydrobiopterin [BH4]) also play a role in regulating NO production by eNOS.

... but, stress on the arteries, such as high-blood pressure, triggers NOS which makes the NO, and there are other signaling molecules. This triggers endothelial cells to make NO and tell the muscles in the artery wall to relax and allow the blood to flow.

Quick Learning Video

Nitric Oxide, NOS and vasodilation: Sep/2014.
Physiology for Hippies.

Quick Info Video

Nitric oxide - benefits and side effects: Feb.2015. ...
Shomu's Biology.

 


 

Blood | Bad Blood ≡ Bad Nutrition

Nutrients, Lipo-Proteins, and RBC (Red Blood Cells)

Live long and prosper - blood vessel structures within the blood vessels called "Plasma". This plasma is 90% water and contains all of the nutrients, lipo-proteins, lipids, and red blood cells required to feed the body. The body is 70% water by weight and humans are made up of approximately 84% RBC's. (10,11)

From the Nature article ... Nature - Human cells vs. Bacteria cells our Gut Microbiome and number of human cells are approximately the same. By sheer magnitude our RBC are 84% of our cells in the human body and from this we can easily draw the conclusion that any dysfunction with our blood or red blood cells would be catastrophic to human life.

is 4 months and white blood cells have an average lifespan of 1 year, this implies we are replacing over a 2 Trillion blood cells every week that is ≅ 300 Billion per day. Human red blood cells (RBC), after differentiating from erythroblasts in the bone marrow, are released into the blood and survive in the circulation for approximately 115 days. (12,13) and Ref: ... this site - Healthy Bones and Centenarians.

Cardiovascular system and living to 100
Ron Sender, Shai Fuchs, Ron Milo, Estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body (11)

Red Cell count = 5 liters of blood has 4.2 to 6.1 million cells/ul (microliter), this implies → Million × Million × 5 × (4.2-6.1) ≅ 25 trillion cells. The normal range in men is approximately 4.7 to 6.1 million cells/ul (microliter). [Normal ranges - Dr. Nabili] (14)

At a Minimum 200 billion red blood cells (RBCs) are produced every day, requiring more than 2 × 1015 iron atoms every second to maintain adequate erythropoiesis. These numbers translate into 20 mL of blood being produced each day, containing 6 g of hemoglobin and 20 mg of iron. These numbers illustrate why the making and breaking of RBCs is at the heart of iron physiology. Understanding the systemic and cellular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of iron homeostasis and its disorders, requires more than ... just Poping a supplement.

we cannot make red blood cells without Vitamin A. Most know that Vitamin A is important in Eye Health, but our red blood cells are all made from Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) activity known as Hematopoiesis. Without Vitamin A this stem cell activity is disrupted. These stem cells move in and out of dormancy on a diet sufficient in vitamin A, but are disrupted and stress the blood system and cause a malfunction is healthy blood cell replacement. (14a), [Triage Theory].

Hemoglobin weight, hemoglobin is a protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen and gives blood its red color. The normal range for hemoglobin may differ between the sexes and is approximately 13 to 18 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 grams per deciliter for women. Hence = 14g × 5 × 10 ≅ 700 grams or 1 ½ pounds of hemoglobin protein.

Cardiovascular system and living to 100
MedicineNet, Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD, (15)

Transport System -the blood is a transport system and all the elements are in an Ionic State. Cell wall charges are the stabilizing factor in the blood. Sulfur in the form of SO4, is an oxygen supplier and hence the primary energy supplier to cell metabolism. Cholesterol sulfate is quantitatively the most important known sterol sulfate in human plasma. Cholesterol sulfate is a component of cell membranes where it has a stabilizing role in all cellular metabolic processes. (16) also ref: ... this site Cholesterol, Cholesterol-Sulfate - Lipoproteins and the Liver:

Cholesterol sulfate has been shown to be a normal constituent of blood platelets and to modulate platelet function. Sulfonation (Wiki) of cholesterol makes it water soluble and then available throughout the body. Sulfonation is an important modification of cholesterol and its derivatives, bile acids, vitamin D, and steroids. (17)

Water Quality - this is an obvious issue as blood is 90% water. But more importantly water quality effects nutrition, as people who drink hard water have less cardiovascular diseases vs. soft water. This indicates that we can get many mineral nutrients from water. The less conditioning we do to water is probably better.

Coming soon: More on Bad Blood and diet.

 

Cardio Tests | Blood 84% of Our Bodily Cells

Cardio and Blood are Good Indicators

Hemoglobin A1C (Glycated Hemoglobin) is a biomarker for the three month average of plasma glucose concentration. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside red blood cells (RBCs). (the most studied protein in human history [ASH - Blood, Gadwin, Shapiro, 2008]) Higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicate a poorer control of blood glucose levels. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases the glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This biomarker is used to diagnose diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. (19) (19a) Darwin C., New York: Appleton; 1875. Insectivorous Plants ... red cells participated in oxygen binding and transport.,p60

longevity and carbohydrates for longer lifespan

Blood Pressure: Hypertension is highly prevalent in the adult population in the United States, (CDC - 29% of American adults, 1 in 3, and only 54% have it under control, another 1 in 3 are Prehypertension). This is especially prevalent among persons older than 60 years of age, and affects approximately 1 billion adults worldwide. A healthy blood pressure is one of the key measures of a healthy heart, so your blood pressure is vitally important!

The overwhelmingly more common type of elevated blood pressure is the kind that doesn’t have a clear cause, so-called primary hypertension. In these cases it’s often part of what’s called “metabolic syndrome”, also known as the disease of the Western world and the SAD (Standard American Diet). Also, we know the the SAD - just keeps getting SAD'der

High Blood Pressure was virtually Unknown 200 years ago. Unless we are Dumb, we can draw some conclusions if our blood pressure starts to show signs of rising. Clearly, something is going on with your diet (unless of course you have a disease). Most obviously our Arteries are becoming less flexible. Time to get serious about Your Body ... (Key )

Blood pressure is a measure of the force against the walls of your Arteries (outgoing vessels) in response to the pumping of your heart. The amount of blood being pumped and the flexibility of your arteries both influence that force. Your blood pressure can rise when either or both of these things happen.

Most Accurate - by Best Reviews - Omron 10

    Two numbers are used to measure blood pressure.

  1. Systolic or the top number, measures the force when your heart contracts. Specifically: the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
  2. Diastolic the bottom number measures the force when your heart rests. Specifically: the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart when the ventricles fill with blood.
  3. American Heart Association - AHA, Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

The endothelial cells lining the walls of your blood vessels play a crucial role in regulating blood flow and blood pressure. These cells produce a gas called nitric oxide (NO) that helps. Nitric oxide acts as a Vascular Dilator (blood vessel relaxant). NO initiates and maintains vasodilation through a cascade of biological events that culminate in the relaxation of smooth muscle cells that line arteries, veins, lymphatics (venous, arterial, and lymph flows). (19b)

The research team who discovered the Nitric Oxide signaling pathway, won the Nobel prize in 1998. [Nobelprize.org] Normal vasodilation cannot occur in patients whose NO production or release is depressed. Without vasodilation, healing of ulcers will be slow, development of nerve damage will accelerate, and circulation to organs such as eyes, kidney, heart, and intestine will remain below normal.

In normal subjects, the control of perfusion (Wiki), which is the body delivering blood to our capillary system, involves several vasoconstrictor hormones and activation of sympathetic nerves, which together cause vasoconstriction. In the absence of normal concentrations of NO, even normal levels of vasoconstrictive hormones or nervous activity results in abnormally low blood flow (vasoconstriction and its effect to reduce tissue perfusion). (19c)

Cardiovascular system, red blood cess, (RBCs) and living to 100
Nitric Oxide - NO, µs of life, but involved is all the complexity of Red Blood Cells, RBCs, and micronutrient diffusion. (25)

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are also indicators. Small increases in NO lead to both vasodilation and to better sensory perception. This occurs only if the enzyme that makes NO (guanylate cyclase (GC)) and its cofactors are available in adequate amounts. If oxygen delivery to all cells is impaired which means molecular oxygen, also a cofactor, then this weakens the cycle to generate NO from L-arginine.

, also known as nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOS3 gene. eNOS is primarily responsible for the generation of NO in the Vascular Endothelium - a 1 kg multifunctional paracrine and endocrine organ, a monolayer of flat cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels, at the interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the remainder of the vessel wall. (20)

In mammals, NO can be generated by three different isoforms of the enzyme NO synthase. The isozymes are referred to as neuronal ‘n’NOS (or NOS I), inducible ‘i’NOS (or NOS II), and endothelial ‘e’NOS (or NOS III). (21-Figure 1)

NO produced by eNOS in the vascular endothelium plays crucial roles in regulating vascular tone, cellular proliferation, leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. Therefore, a functional eNOS is essential for a healthy cardiovascular system. (21,22)

Tissues that are hypoxic (deprived of good, normal circulation) cannot produce as much NO as do normal, well-oxygenated tissues. Thus an initial period of hypoxia leads to declines in NO production and less and less blood flow over time, this becomes a vicious cycle.

is an indicator. The body tries to compensate for low blood oxygen i.e. Hypoxia by building more red blood cells. The body want more Oxygen carriers. People with polycythemia have an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin, or red blood cell count above the normal limits. [Normal ranges - Dr. Nabili] (14)

Complete Blood Count (CBC) will be run by doctors. The complete blood count, or CBC, lists a number of many important values. [Components of the complete blood count (CBC) - Dr. Siamak Nabili] (14)

Key Words for your own research: eNOS, iNOS, nNOS, (21) guanylate cyclase (GC), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), then NO/GC/cGMP mediated vasodilation, research on these pathways, and you will earn your PhD in Bio-Chemistry. Even L-Arg, L-arginine; L-Cit, L-citrulline; are part of the Endothelium eNOS diffusion mechanism of Oxidants and Reductants. (25)

Everyone has heard of Nitroglycerin used for heart and chest pain. The Nitrogen-Oxygen bond is the most powerful chemical bond in nature and Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, a product in which the explosion-prone nitroglycerin is curbed. Modern explosives are based on this chemistry.

Coming soon: More on blood pressure and diet.

 

Cardiovascular Disease | extracellular junk

fats and oils for health and longevity
Cholesterol cycle HDL/LDL, Lipoproteins and the Liver, University of Washington (34,34a)

is essentially a macrophage that becomes poisoned by contaminants, oxidized cholesterol to be precise, which are contaminants of the materials that it is processing. Lipid-filled "foam cell" macrophages are an unusual and characteristic feature of atherosclerotic lesions. Foam cells contain massive intracellular deposits of neutral lipids, mainly cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides. The major source of these lipids is mainly plasma-derived lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

The fact that foam cells develop, indicates that either reverse cholesterol transport (i.e. hydrolysis of esterified cholesterol from lipid droplets and its export from the cell) and/or lysosomal hydrolysis and export of endocytosed lipoprotein-derived lipids, are also dysfunctional. [SENS Research Foundation] (35)

are cells that did not carry out apoptosis and refused to die i.e. Junk. Foam Cells are "White Blood Cells" that did not die and were not replaced, these foam cells just continue to collect as junk leading to CVD and a failure of this system.

TBD

 


 

Ok - Now What?

The body has three to six (3-6) principle circulatory systems, depending on definitions and All require muscle movement to function. → Cardiovascular - Heart, → Pulmonary - Lungs, → Systemic -Blood and Vessels, moved by our involuntary muscle system.

The Lymphatic - Lymph, requires our voluntary muscles to contract and provide circulation, i.e. ... movement and Exercise. The Endocrine - Hormones are driven by metabolic chemical signals, with the Guts and Gut Microbiome - Manufacturing and Recycling, communicating with the body's WBR - Whole Body Requirements.

Our modern society created a Nutritional Disease; therefore, we need a Nutritional Solution. Eating too many of the wrong carbohydrates too often is what causes blood sugar and insulin levels to rise, placing us at high risk for insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease (Type 3 Diabetes). Our bodies have evolved to handle whole food sources of carbohydrates like peppers, broccoli, onions, and tubers etc., but our bodies simply aren’t equipped to cope with modern refined carbohydrates like refined flour and sugar. Ref: The Premise for this Nutritional Solution.

Simple solution, avoid carbohydrates as they offer no known nutritional benefits. Carbohydrates are however packaged in food source organisms that do provide Longevity Vitamins, Our foods provide Phytonutrients, macronutrients, micronutrients (for critical DNA repair) (R1), Polyphenols, Phytosterols, Flavonoids, Lignans, Antioxidants, and Carotenoids, that do allow life to continue. Ref: 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols. (Resource 1,2,3)

Certainly avoid processed carbohydrates, fats and oils, any packaged and foods. A direct result of too many carbohydrates is Insulin Resistance functional manifested as Carbohydrate Intolerance. Dr. Volek discusses his current views on the benefits of a LCHF plan - Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | july/2016 and this site follows this type of plan with the addition of Dr. Ames' "Triage Theory" ... the Centenarian Diet.

What path are You On?

 


Notes:

  1. Potassium [K+] is a critical element. We get plenty of sodium [Na+] and the body can balance the calcium [Ca++], as it stores that in our bones. Chloride [ Cl − ] comes along with Na and the Chlorine in our water. The Na+/K+ pump is responsible for transporting nutrients and maintaining cell volume. Potassium aids in muscle contraction, nerve impulse, and heart function. Potassium is hard to get, USDA DV is 4700mg. This is hard to get without the proper diet. This must be tracked we need to work overtime to get 4700mg potassium [K+] to get it in our diet. Supplemented as Potassium Citrate there is a sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women. (26)
  2. Potassium Chloride KCl is used instead of sodium chloride NaCl, assuming normal use 7-8 grams/tsp, i.e. 1 tsp = 7-8gm. 1 tsp salt (NaCl), 39% Na by weight, 7.0g crystal salt, Na = 2730mg, KCl 52% K by weight, = 3540mg. Cardiovascular system and living to 100 If using Potassium Citrate M.W. = 324.4 g/mol, therefore, the mEq would be approximately 5 times KCl. KCl M.W. = 74.55 g/mol, by weight. That means adding 5 tsp of KC6H5O7 (Potassium Citrate) to you electrolyte regime.
  3. Ion Channel: The cell membrane is permeable to a number of ions, the most important of which are Na+, K+, Ca++ and Cl-. These ions pass across the membrane through specific ion channels that can open (become activated) and close (become inactivated). Therefore, these channels are said to be gated channels. (27,27a)

    The Na+/K+ ATPase ion transporter (Wiki), which is a critical functioning part of every animal cell, plays a major role in cellular malnutrition and dysfunction.

 


Aside cell 3
Fighting cancer and living to 100
VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System
Curbing Cancer's Sweet Tooth

Dr. Tan is introducing Veterans with advanced cancer to a ketogenic LCHF - (high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate) diet. This eating plan starves cancer cells while still meeting a patient's nutritional needs.

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[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. JAMA , JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion
  2. SALT , SALT - Dr. Mercola analysis - ... Salt Could Actually Spare You a Heart Attack
  3. Video youTube, Cardiovascular System In Under 10 Minutes
  4. R1 PubMed, Effects of micronutrients on DNA repair. Collins AR, Azqueta A, Langie SA.
  5. Resource 1 ECJN, Table 1. Polyphenol and antioxidant content in the 100 richest foods (mg per 100 g or mg per 100 ml)
  6. Resource 2 ECJN, Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database, J Perez-Jimenez, V Neveu, F Vos and A Scalbert
  7. Resource 3 Phenol-Explorer.eu, Phenol-Explorer is the first comprehensive database on polyphenol content in foods
  8. 1 NHI, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, USDA Human Services, What Is Atrial Fibrillation?
  9. 2 Cardiac output: intrinsic, neural and endocrine effects Tips for How to Study the Cardiovascular System, by Margaret Reece, PhD
  10. 3 APS, American Physiological Society, Arrhythmogenic Ion-Channel Remodeling in the Heart: Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction, and Atrial Fibrillation, by Stanley Nattel, Ange Maguy, Sabrina Le Bouter, Yung-Hsin Yeh
  11. 4 Cardiac Muscle Electrical Activity, Natural Pacemaker When the heart's electrical system misfires, K, Ca, and Na out of balance.
  12. 5 OpenStax, cnx.org, Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
  13. 6 NCBI PMC Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2005 Sep; 1(3): 183–198. PMCID: PMC1993955, Endothelial Dysfunction: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Therapy, and Outcome, Hadi AR Hadi, Cornelia S Carr, and Jassim Al Suwaidi.
  14. 7 Circulation. 2006;113:1888-1904 Reciprocal Relationships Between Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction Molecular and Pathophysiological Mechanisms, Jeong-a Kim, Monica Montagnani, Kwang Kon Koh and Michael J. Quon
  15. 8 NCBI PubMed, J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan;16(1):5-22., Glucotoxicity and beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kaiser N, Leibowitz G, Nesher R.
  16. 9 NCBI PMC, Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Sep; 37(3): 685–x., An Integrated View of Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction, Ranganath Muniyappa, MD, PhD, Micaela Iantorno, MD, and Michael J. Quon, MD, PhD.
  17. 10 Nature, 2016, Scientists bust myth that our bodies have more bacteria than human cells, Alison Abbott.
  18. 11 Cold Springs Lab - bioRxiv, Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body, Ron Sender, Shai Fuchs, Ron Milo
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  20. 13 NCBI PMC, Transfus Med Hemother 2012;39:302–307, Measurement of Red Cell Lifespan and Aging, Robert S. Franco
  21. 14 MedicineNet.com Polycythemia (Elevated Red Blood Cell Count) Polycythemia (Elevated Red Blood Cell Count)
  22. 14a Cell 2017, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.01 Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid Signaling Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Dormancy, Nina Cabezas-Wallscheid, et al.
  23. 15 MedicineNet.com, Hemoglobin, Medical Author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD, Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR.
  24. 16 Journal of Lipid Research, 2003, Cholesterol sulfate in human physiology, Charles A. Strott and Yuko Higashi
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  26. 18 NCBI PubMed, Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-77. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Yancy WS, et al.
  27. 19 American Society of Hematology - Blood 2008 112:2636-2647; , The functional nitrite reductase activity of the heme-globins, Mark T. Gladwin and Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro
  28. 19a C Darwin - 1888 - books.google.com. THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION
  29. 19b Diabetes in Control Nitric Oxide Series, Part Four: How Nitric Oxide (NO) Causes Vasodilation, Dr. Thomas Burke.
  30. 19c Diabetes in Control, Nitric Oxide Series, Part One: Discovery of NO, Dr. Thomas Burke.
  31. 20 Science Direct, The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, V34:12, December 2002, pp 1508–1512 Cells in focus: endothelial cell, Bauer E Sumpio, J Timothy Riley, Alan Dardik
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  33. 22 NCBI PubMed Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Jan;63(2):144-62. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: insight into cell-specific gene regulation in the vascular endothelium. Fish JE, Marsden PA.
  34. 25 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2006;26:697-705, Unraveling the Reactions of Nitric Oxide, Nitrite, and Hemoglobin in Physiology and Therapeutics, Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro, Alan N. Schechter, Mark T. Gladwin
  35. 26 NCBI PMC, Potassium citrate supplementation results in sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women, Kendall Moseley MD, Connie Weaver PhD, Lawrence Appel MD, Anthony Sebastian MD, and Deborah E. Sellmeyer MD.
  36. 27 Journal of Neuroscience February 2015, 35 (8) 3346-3359; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4040-14.2015, Peripheral Nerve Injury Induces Persistent Vascular Dysfunction and Endoneurial Hypoxia, Contributing to the Genesis of Neuropathic Pain, Tony K.Y. Lim, Xiang Q. Shi, Julia M. Johnson, Malena B. Rone, Jack P. Antel, Samuel David and Ji Zhang
  37. 27a NCBI PubMed, Peripheral Nerve Injury Induces Persistent Vascular Dysfunction and Endoneurial Hypoxia, Contributing to the Genesis of Neuropathic Pain, Tony K.Y. Lim, Xiang Q. Shi, Julia M. Johnson, Malena B. Rone, Jack P. Antel, Samuel David and Ji Zhang
  38. 30 Lab Tests Online, Understanding Electrolytes, Empower your health, Understand Your Tests.
  39. 34 Washington.edu, Courses, Cholesterol, Lipoproteins and the Liver.
  40. 34a University of Washington, Home Page.
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is a positive online community for seniors who are interested in longevity and becoming centenarians. Living to 100 years of age becomes a goal, and sharing and exploring this goal is an issue that matters to those in the golden years. A platform for the energetic, creative, and productive, to share life experiences by contributing your experiences on this site. Founded to explore quality living, healthy aging, longevity and becoming Centenarians.