Protein - Essential

  Proteins for Health span, Lifespan, Living past 100

Protein - Essential for Life and Longevity

Aging, Muscle health, and Sarcopenia, ... what is the optimum range of proteins needed and which play important roles in muscle protein synthesis after meals? Once we are out of adolescence we have to avoid "Sarcopenia". Insulin and leucine are a growth hormone and a signaling protein for growth and repair. Leucine is more important to avoid blunting protein synthesis in the elderly ... To maximize muscle protein synthesis while being cognizant of total energy intake, a dietary plan that includes 25-30g of high quality protein per meal distributed evenly with low carbohydrates. (1,2,2a,)


Proteins | Essential Macronutrient

protein and living to 100 or living past 100

| Open diagram in new window |

DNA is a double helix made up of 4 building blocks -bases- called adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). The human body contains almost 3 billion bases of DNA.

(6), is the process by which individual cells construct proteins from amino acids. Both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and all types of ribonucleic acid (RNA) are involved in this process.

Enzymes in the cell's nucleus begin the process of synthesizing protein by unwinding the needed section of DNA, so that RNA can be made. The RNA forms as a copy of one side of the DNA strand, and is sent to other areas of the cell to aid in the bringing together of different amino acids that form proteins.

Protein synthesis is so called because proteins are "synthesized" through mechanical and chemical processes in the cell. The process of protein synthesis takes place in numerous ribosomes throughout the cell. A cell which is operating efficiently can synthesize hundreds of proteins every second.

When your body breaks down or digests proteins, amino acids are what's left behind. There are nine essential amino acids, which are not made by your body and therefore must be obtained via your diet.

Building Blocks - both animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids. Amino acids are found in animal sources such as meats, milk, fish, and eggs. They are also found in plant sources such as soy, beans, legumes, nut butters, and some grains (such as wheat germ and quinoa). Thus far, more than 300 (three hundred kinds) of amino acids have been discovered in nature. However, only 20 (twenty) of them are usually found as compounds of human peptides and proteins. (7)

Protein Synthesis Animation

Biology Forums: Master your Courses

You do not need to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Protein foods are broken down into amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number of amino acids in large enough amounts to maintain good health. Proteins are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. (8,9,19)

    Proteins fall into 3 categories for humans need: (16)

  1. Essential amino acids (EAAs): cannot be made by the body, and must be supplied by food. They do not need to be eaten at one meal. The balance over the whole day is more important.
  2. Non-essential amino acids: are made by the body from essential amino acids or in the normal breakdown of proteins.
  3. Conditional amino acids: are needed in times of illness and stress.
Table 1. Translating Protein Into Foods

Example: Rolled Oats

Protein & Aminos

Serving Size:  100g or 3.5ozCarbs: 69gFiber: 10g

Essential Aminos - EAAs (Info 1)

Histidine0.405 g58%
Isoleucine → BCAA (Info 2)0.694 g80%
Leucine → BCAA (Info 2)1.284 g87%
Lysine0.701 g73%
Methionine + Cysteine† (Info 3) 0.72 g65%
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine† (17) 1.468 g 120%
Threonine0.575 g85%
Tryptophan0.234 g84%
Valine → BCAA (Info 2)0.937 g110%

Non-essential Aminos

Alanine0.881 g
Asparagine (17)1.448 g
Aspartic acid (Note 1)0.408 g
Glutamic acid (Note 1)0.408 g

Conditional Aminos

Arginine1.192 g
Glutamine (17)3.712 g
Glycine (Info 3)0.841 g
Proline0.934 g
Serine0.75 g
* Amino acid RDA/RDI's (RDA) are based on the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake (mg/kg per day) for an adult human weighing 70 kg (154.3 pounds). "Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition". WHO Press, page 150.
† The World Health Organization provides a single recommended daily intake for the combinations of Methionine and Cysteine and the combination of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine.
~Data not available for tilde (~) items.
⇒ Key Ref: Amino Acids Guide .com (7)

Info Notes:

  1. While most amino acids are broken down in your liver, BCAAs are broken down primarily in your muscle. As such, they're believed to help improve exercise performance as well as reduce the breakdown of muscle. Exercise and Gene Expression
  2. Three amino acids - leucine, isoleucine and valine, are considered branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) because they have a branched molecular structure. In particular, leucine is shown to "accelerate recovery from muscle damage by preventing excessive inflammation". (11) We discuss leucine below as a factor in Protein Balance and Metabolism.
  3. Glycine helps form glutathione, a valuable antioxidant that’s used to prevent cellular damage and various signs of aging. Glutathione deficiency in elderly humans occurs because of a marked reduction in synthesis. Dietary supplementation with the glutathione precursors cysteine and glycine fully restores glutathione synthesis and concentrations and lowers levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damages. These findings suggest a practical and effective approach to decreasing oxidative stress in aging. (12,12a)



Proteins - How Much? | Optimal Intake

Translating Ideal Protein Requirements Into Foods

We cannot use Percentage of protein as a measure of daily intake (US Dept. Ag.). New research emphasizes the relevance of protein grams per meal, and a case can be made that a greater focus on essential amino acid (EAA) intakes is warranted to achieve optimal health outcomes. After age 30, insulin plays less of a role because Growing is finished, our bodies are now responding to the environment and Leucine has been shown as the controlling EAA for repair and maintenance. (5)

We need to use g/kg lean muscle mass as our measurment of protein intake. Substantial amounts of protein can be found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, nuts, and seeds. All vegetables also contain generous amounts of protein - for example, broccoli. To determine whether or not you're getting too much protein, simply calculate your body's requirement based on your lean body mass. We need about one-half gram (½ g/lb) of protein per pound of lean body mass (65g - 85g per av. person).

"Too" many Carbohydrates | contributor october/2016 and proteins (i.e. gluconeogenesis) are not good. There is no "No known reason to eat Carbs", whereas this is not true of proteins and fats. However due to gluconeogenesis (GNG) "too many proteins" and proteins can function as carbohydrates, therefore, restricting carbohydrates is not enough to maintain lean body mass. Protein intake and intake balance must be considered when consuming proteins.

Table 2. Translating Ideal Protein Requirements Into Foods -

→ Red meat, pork, poultry, and seafood average 6 to 9 grams of protein per ounce.

An ideal amount for most people would be a 3 oz. serving of meat or seafood (not 9 or 12 oz steaks!), which will provide about 18 to 27 grams of protein. Ref: ... the Centenarian Diet - Day 1.

→ Eggs contain about 6 to 8 grams of protein per egg. So an omelet made from two eggs would give you about 12 to 16 grams of protein

If you add cheese, you need to calculate that protein in as well, and cheese need to be fermented, i.e. Healthy Cheese |contributor June/2016

→ Seeds and nuts contain on average 4 to 8 grams of protein per ¼ cup ≡ 1oz. Ex: 24 almonds = 1 oz = 6g protein. Ref: Nuts. Modern grains have evolved for Hyper-Palatability and Less Bitter, without regard to micronutrients.

→ Cooked beans average about 7 to 8 grams per half cup. The problem with beans is they are high in carbs, but unlike modern grains, they retain 100's of Phytochemicals aka, Micronutrients.

→ Cooked grains average 5 to 7 grams per cup. The problem with grains is they are high in carbs. Modern grains are a HCLN - High Carb Low Nutrient food.

→ Most vegetables contain about 1 to 2 grams of protein per ounce. Veggies are 90% water, so this is equivalent to 20% protein.

Autophagy and human metabolic protein requirements. Calculate the amount of daily protein you've consumed from all sources. Again, you're aiming for one-half gram of protein per pound of lean body mass. The Lean Body Mass (LBM - Calculator) is a part of the body. It is normally defined to be the body weight minus the body fat. Typically lean body mass is 60-90% of the total body mass. If you're currently averaging a lot more, think more like the Asian culture does. If LCHF, then use, the best keto tool we have found.

Animal proteins are an accoutrement not the main course. This is reflected by ... the Centenarian Diet which is espoused on this site. (Ex. LBM = 160lb ~> 80g, which is about 12 - 14g per snack/meal, 6 portions.) Too much protein puts a burden on your kidneys (kidney failure 4th leading cause of death) as they are acids and your body simply converts to Uric Acid and excess proteins goes out as waste (in urine). Ref: ... Exponential Epigenetic Affects - The Rise of Man-made Diseases | contributor March/2017

has retained/created the ability to survive without eating, i.e. starvation. We store Fats and Proteins ... Only, and carbs in very limited amounts ... ref: Carb-Loading Debunked. Our liver can convert Proteins to Glucose, this is why Fasting or Starvation Works | contributor march/2017. Your blood glucose levels will never go to zero, (even on a 30 day water fast) as our body's protective mechanism "Gluconeogensis - GNG" converts proteins to glucose when needed.

The Additional Recommended Watching ... more


Protein Balance and Metabolism | Sarcopenia

After the age of 30 years, Sarcopenia is a progressive process characterized by 3–8% reduction in lean muscle mass per decade. It is thought to affect 30% of individuals over 60 years of age and more than 50% of those over 80 years. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with self-reported physical disability in both men and women, independent of ethnicity, age, morbidity, obesity, income, and health behaviors. (1,4)

Dr. Layman (2,5) and Dr. Kato (11), have shown that accelerated recovery is possible with the control of the BCAA leucine. Leucine becomes a key signaling component during inflammation and is more effective than insulin. Studies suggest that leucine-enriched amino acids accelerate recovery from muscle damage by preventing excessive inflammation. This is one of the BACC which is currently highly studied.

protein and living to 100 or living past 100

| Open diagram in new window |

If we accept that 25–30 g of high quality protein (~10 g EAA) is necessary to maximally stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis, then it seems reasonable to suggest that ingestion of this amount of high-quality protein at each meal could be a useful strategy to maintain muscle mass in the elderly. (1,2,2a,3)

The average protein intake for men >20 y is ∼98 g/d and for women is ∼68 g/d, but an unbalanced distribution may reduce the effectiveness of the daily intake for muscle health and modulate ingestive behavior. Also not addressed in existing protein recommendations are the changes that occur in amino acid utilization as a result of aging, with increased physical activity, or with a decrease in physical activity (inactivity - your worst enemy). (2,5) and also ref: ... this site - Exercise, Telomeres, and Gene Expression.

so when we eat, we want 25 - 35 g/meal (ie. chunk) of proteins with a minimum of that equal to 10% leucine. After growth, our bodies abandon insulin as the growth trigger, and uses Leucine as the Trigger/Signaling molecule for protein synthesis and repair and maintenance of our bodies.

This principle has been a functional part of the Body Building World for 45 years. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and all three of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Leucine provides the Signal that amino acids are available. We do not want high leucine intake, as this may also lead to Insulin Resistance, we need to balance our protein intake at 10% leucine. 2b,2c)

Dr. Layman puts the Leucine Threshold at about 3g/meal (Chunk). A protein intake of about 30 g/meal, with 3 grams of leucine is necessary to take the body out of a catabolic state. Over or Under that amount and the body does not use it and has no effect on protein synthesis. Its not about a lot of protein, but a balance in Chunks. (2,2a,11) (Dr. Layman - Lecture, 2013)

Three key components of signaling include: the energy status of the muscle cell, insulin, and the amino acid leucine. The distribution of protein at individual meals is physiologically important to optimize mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis. (2,5,5a)



Proteins | as Part of Functional Medicine

Protein Machines - the Engines of Life

bind to other molecules and in humans form what scientists are calling Protein Machines. (24,24a) In this era of extensive genome sequencing, many new protein families have been discovered whose functions are unknown.

Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to foreign molecules. Many proteins can perform their function simply by binding to another molecule. This is the case for the large and very important class of proteins called Enzymes (which catalyzes a chemical reaction).

. The efficiency of enzymes in accelerating chemical reactions is crucial to the maintenance of life. A typical mammalian cell "turns over" (i.e., hydrolyzes and restores by phosphorylation) its entire ATP pool once every 1 or 2 minutes. For each cell this turnover represents the utilization of roughly 10 million molecules of ATP per second (or, for the human body, about 1 gram of ATP every minute). (24,24a,24b) This is why the prominent theory of aging holds that decaying of mitochondria, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, is a key driver of aging. Ref: ... this site DNA.

For Optimum Health, proteins should be controlled in our eating habits, the 3 BCAAs (26) are those that the body cannot make, 13 other amino acids are gluconeogeneic (GNG), which is one of several issues with consuming excessive protein while on a LCHF ketogenic diet or any diet for that matter. (ref: ... Protein Balance) Proteins can function in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. Ref: ... this site Metabolism- for the Centenarian .

In total, there are nine essential amino acids that must be consumed. They are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. All three BCAAs are included here as is valine (in bold). Prevention of muscle breakdown is the main benefit of BCAAs. (26a)

protein and living past 100 becoming a centenarian

, which means it can lead to muscle breakdown. Malnutrition is a form of Dieting and Stress on our bodies which everyone does intentionally or unintentionally. If we are not aware of our nutrition we will trigger Triage Theory and our body will start to reallocate nutrients in favor of short term health. (Example: it has been shown that Vitamin K goes to blood clotting first, before it is used in other enzymatic functions such as clearing calcification of arteries.) The best nutritional tracking tool currently available for a daily tracking guide is - Track Your Way to Better Health with this Tool. (27,27a)

Cells have evolved protein machines for the same reason that humans have invented mechanical and electronic machines. For accomplishing almost any task, manipulations that are spatially and temporally coordinated through linked processes are much more efficient than the sequential use of individual tools. There are many challenges facing cell biologists in this "post-genome" era when complete genome sequences are known. One is the need to dissect and reconstruct each one of the thousands of protein machines that exist in an organism such as ourselves. (24,24a,24b)

, most chemical reactions within organisms would be impossible under the normal conditions within the cell. We are a constant-temperature Chemical Soup, the body temperature of most organisms is too low for reactions to occur quickly enough to carry out life processes. If you remember your chemistry, most reactions require energy input, hence the Beauty of Enzymes - which speed up and control reactions. They provide a substrate that lowers this energy threshold.

Further, reactants may also be present in such low concentrations that it is unlikely they will meet and collide. Therefore, the rate of most biochemical reactions must be increased by a catalyst. A catalyst is a chemical substrate that speeds up chemical reactions. In organisms, catalysts are called enzymes.

Like other catalysts, enzymes are not reactants in the reactions they control. They help the reactants interact but are not used up in the reactions. Instead, they may be used over and over again. Unlike other catalysts, enzymes are usually highly specific for a particular chemical reaction. They generally catalyze only one or a few types of reactions.

. Essentially, enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up biochemical reactions. Science has identified more than 3,000 different enzymes, yet we've likely only scratched the surface. Some believe we may have anywhere from 50,000 to 70,000 enzymes in our bodies. (28a) Each enzyme generally is able to promote only one type of chemical reaction and works in one specific pathway.

vegetables and living to 100
Enzymes work in chemical pathways in sequential orders.

All cells contain enzymes, which usually vary in number and composition, depending on the cell type; an average mammalian cell, for example, is approximately one one-billionth (109) the size of a drop of water and generally contains about 3,000 enzymes. (28b,28c)

Enzymes were known for many years as ferments, a term derived from the Latin word for yeast. The existence of enzymes was established in the middle of the 19th century by scientists studying the process of fermentation. Their role as catalysts of all living things soon became clear. In 1878 the name enzyme, from the Greek words meaning “in yeast,” was introduced; since the late 19th century it has been universally used.

Enzymes can be thought of as nano-machines, powering the reactions of the cell to enable the human body to be the Living Organism it is. These molecular motors harness the energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to drive actin-based or microtubulebased movements. (28c)

Eating raw food is the number-one activity which preserves enzymes and maximizes health. It is the diet of choice of all the rest of Mother Nature’s children that do well on this planet.

    Your research should be Directed At:

  1. Metabolic enzymes: involved in energy production and detoxification. Metabolic enzymes are intra-cellular, meaning inside your cells, where they help the cell carry out a variety of functions related to its reproduction and replenishment.
  2. Food-based enzymes: contained in raw, uncooked/unprocessed foods and/or supplements. Dietary enzyme supplements are derived either from plants or animals.

. We created this but we can adjust ... It is a striking fact that all other species, without exception, eat their foods raw, whereas the overwhelming majority of humans do not. We need active living Enzymes to aid in digestion, but we know that we can get 50% more energy from cooked foods, especially proteins. Ref: ... Raw vs. Cooked Vegetables | contributor - may/2016, and Harvard Professor Richard Wrangham ... Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, Dr. Richard Wrangham | february/2013.


Proteins - mTOR Pathway |

multi-protein complexes

The Nutrient Sensing - Survival Pathway

is a major regulator of cell growth and key regulator of cell physiology. It nucleates at least two distinct multi-protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Discoveries that have been made over the last decade show that the mTOR pathway is activated during various cellular processes (e.g. tumor formation and angiogenesis, insulin resistance, adipogenesis and T-lymphocyte activation) and is deregulated in human diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. (30,30a)

is a part of the survival pathway of cell signaling that helps in cell growth and proliferation. It is the central component of a nutrient and hormone sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell growth and proliferation. This pathway becomes deregulated in many human cancers and plays an important role in the control of metabolism and aging.

The cell has to sense the proper nutrient levels for growth, both macro and micro nutrients. The mTOR and IGF are primary growth regulating pathways. Dr. David Sabatini a leading researcher on growth pathways such as mTOR provides an - Advanced Lecture: Regulation of growth by the mTOR pathway | Dr. Sabatini Lecture Series, march/2013 and a follow up in 2016 with David Sabatini, PhD , MD , Growth By The mTOR Pathway | cell signaling technology inc, feb/2016

Dr. Peter Attia, The Eating Academy - blog, discusses the importance of the mTOR pathways, BCAAs, and muscle metabolism with Dr. Rhonda Patrick - in regards to health and longevity ... Peter Attia, MD, on Macronutrient Thresholds for Longevity and Performance, Cancer and More | march/2016.

Dr. Ron Rosedale - Internationally known expert in nutritional and metabolic medicine and is with one of the founding fathers of the modern low-carb, high-fat, (LCHF) ketogenic diet community, discusses the reason for control of proteins and their affect on longevity ... 'The Early Ancestral Connection Between Protein, Cancer, Aging and TOR' | April/2016.

Quick Learning Video

mTOR Signaling Pathway and Regulation: Biochemistry Lesson
JJ Medicine

is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with physiological as well as pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, stress, infection, and cancer. mTOR is a critical regulator of autophagy induction, with activated mTOR suppressing autophagy, and negative regulation of mTOR promoting it. mTOR regulation and negative regulation for centenarians Autophagy provides energy through the turnover of intracellular proteins and organelles to guarantee rejuvenation and adaptation in various conditions. (32)

, autophagy functions as a pro-survival mechanism; however, excessive autophagy may lead to cell death, a process morphologically distinct from apoptosis. The accumulation of damaged macromolecules and organelles during ageing occurs due to reduced autophagy activity and leads to reduced lifespan, (33) i.e. we do not want junk and senescent cells collecting, re-cycling is needed. (34)
Example: we replace all blood cells, on average, every115 days (3 times/yr) - ref ... this site - Healthy Heart and Longevity.

, was partially right, as low carbohydrates (CHO) is the best way to eat to avoid the complications of Insulin Resistance and Chronic Inflammation. However, Atkins did not understand the importance of controlling Proteins (Autophagy - Reutilization), and hence because of the Fear of Fat, people replaced carbs with proteins. Ref: ... Autophagy - Reutilization and recovering 70% of our proteins | contributor august/2017.

, in cells since it is a missing nutrient. [Sabatini, 2016] It has been shown that after the age of about 30, insulin becomes less of a growth factor and the protein “Leucine” (a Branch Chain Amino Acit - BCAA) becomes the control. [Dr. Layman, 2013 - Protein Balance]

The most powerful stimulation of mTOR is excess proteins. The best drug to reduce mTOR signaling to slow aging and the chronic diseases associated with it, is already available … Avoid High Proteins!



Ok - Now What?

Anti Aging Nutrition for any Age

are the primary effort of every living animal on this planet. Even plants must seek nutrition and fertile soils with a living microbiome - soil health, to thrive. Humans are no different, as we sometimes forget why we eat. We carry our own microbiome - guts and are seeking Energy for survival, and Nutrition for growth and disease control. Supplying the body with proper nutrition is our reason for eating. ... D. S. McGerk | april/16. What's Cooking?: The Meat and Potatoes of Human Evolution ... Dr. Jeanne Sept | july/13. Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human ... Dr. Richard Wrangham | february/13. The rise of Omega 6 fats, and where did the Omega 3's go from our food sources ... D. S. McGerk | may/16



  1. Aspartic and glutamic acid function within your central nervous system as excitatory neurotransmitters that work to stimulate your brain, according to Independently, aspartic acid's main function is to assist in the synthesis of other amino acids. Glutamic acid functions in sugar and fat metabolism, supplies glucose to your brain, plays a role in thought and memory and facilitates potassium transfer through the blood-brain barrier. (32)

Info Notes:

  1. While most amino acids are broken down in your liver, BCAAs are broken down primarily in your muscle. As such, they're believed to help improve exercise performance as well as reduce the breakdown of muscle. Exercise and Gene Expression
  2. Three amino acids - leucine, isoleucine and valine, are considered branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) because they have a branched molecular structure. In particular, leucine is shown to "accelerate recovery from muscle damage by preventing excessive inflammation". (11) We discuss leucine below as a factor in Protein Balance and Metabolism.
  3. Glycine helps form glutathione, a valuable antioxidant that’s used to prevent cellular damage and various signs of aging. Glutathione deficiency in elderly humans occurs because of a marked reduction in synthesis. Dietary supplementation with the glutathione precursors cysteine and glycine fully restores glutathione synthesis and concentrations and lowers levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damages. These findings suggest a practical and effective approach to decreasing oxidative stress in aging. (12,12a)


living to 100
VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System
Curbing Cancer's Sweet Tooth

Dr. Tan is introducing Veterans with advanced cancer to a ketogenic LCHF - (high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate) diet. This eating plan starves cancer cells while still meeting a patient's nutritional needs.

Take Action
Enhancing hero-worthy care for
Our Nation's Veterans.

[ + ] Sources and References:

  1. RDA NCBI, Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. National Research Council (US) Subcommittee.
  2. 1 NCBI PMC, Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia, Protein, amino acid metabolism and therapy, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Blake B. Rasmussen
  3. 1a
  4. 2 AJCN, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015 Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids, Donald K Layman⇑, Tracy G Anthony, Blake B Rasmussen, Sean H Adams, Christopher J Lynch, Grant D Brinkworth, and Teresa A Davis
  5. 2a youTube, 2013, Nutrition Forum - Dr. Donald Layman, PhD, june/2013.
  6. 2b JN - The Journal of Nutrition 2005 vol. 135 no. 6 1553S-1556S, The Role of Leucine in the Regulation of Protein Metabolism, Peter J. Garlick
  7. 2c JBC - The Journal of Biological Chemistry, J. Biol. Chem. 1971 246: 2152-, CONTROL MECHANISMS AND BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS: Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Heart Muscle, H. E. Morgan, D. C. N. Earl, A. Broadus, E. B. Wolpert, K. E. Giger and L. S. Jefferson.
  8. 3 College of Aces, Food and Science and Human Nutrition, Donald Keith Layman, Professor Emeritus
  9. 4 NCBI PubMed, Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Apr 15;147(8):755-63. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield SB, Ross RR, Garry PJ, Lindeman RD.
  10. 5 NCBI PubMed J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013 Aug;14(8):542-59. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, Cesari M, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Morley JE, Phillips S, Sieber C, Stehle P, Teta D, Visvanathan R, Volpi E, Boirie Y.
  11. 5a NCBI PMC, J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2009 Aug; 53(3): 186–193. Nutrition and muscle protein synthesis: a descriptive review, Dan J. Weinert, DC, MS
  12. 6 Protein Synthesis .org, What is Protein Synthesis?
  13. 7 Amino Acids, Amino Acids, Proteins (building block of life) represent the polymers of alpha-amino acids.
  14. 8 Dairy Council of California© , Protein - More Than Muscle Building, Whey Protein: Nutritional Powerhouse
  15. 9 Dairy Council of California© , Blog, The Whey to a Healthy Diet.
  16. 10 Healthy Eating, Do You Need to Eat Essential Amino Acids Every Day? by Melodie Anne , Demand Media
  17. 11 NCBI PubMed Amino Acids. 2016 Sep;48(9):2145-55. doi: 10.1007/s00726-016-2240-1. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate inflammation in rat muscle and enhance muscle repair after eccentric contraction. Kato H, Miura K, Nakano S, Suzuki K, Bannai M, Inoue Y.
  18. 12 NCBI PubMed, Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):847-53. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.003483. Epub 2011 Jul, Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, Reid M, Balasubramanyam A, Taffet GE, Jahoor F.
  19. 12a Dr. Axe, Food is Medicine, Glycine: The Muscle-Building, Brain-Boosting Amino Acid that Benefits the Entire Body, Dr. Axe, Food is Medicine.
  20. 16 MedlinePlus, Amino acids, Protein in diet
  21. 17 Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietary amino acids and brain function, J. D. Fernstrom, PhD. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
  22. 18, Health and Diet Tool, Personalizing your Daily Diet, Logging tool.
  23. 18a, Track Your Way to Better Health With This Powerful Tool.
  24. 19, A new type of app that helps you understand your body's rhythms while contributing to research.
  25. 20 USDA, Agricultural Research Service, USDA Food Composition Databases
  26. 21 Nature, from European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols, Jimenez, Neveu, Vos, Scalbert.
  27. 22 Neveu V, Perez-Jimenez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024.
  28. 24 ScienceDirect, vol 92, 2, feb/1998, The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines: Preparing the Next Generation of Molecular Biologists, Bruce Alberts
  29. 24a NIH, Director's Blog, mar/2013 Protein Machines at Work, Dr. Francis Collins
  30. 24b NVBI Bookshelf, Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition, Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. 2002
  31. 25 ScienceDirect, vol 1823, 12, dec/2012 Mitophagy is triggered by mild oxidative stress in a mitochondrial fission dependent manner, Magdalena Franka, Stephane Duvezin-Caubeta, Sebastian Koobd, Angelo Occhipintid, Ravi Jagasiaf, Anton Petcherskig, Mika O. Ruonalag, Muriel Priaultb, c, Benedicte Salinb, Andreas S. Reichertd.
  32. 26 NCBI PubMed, Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F
  34. 27, Health and Diet Tool, Personalizing your Daily Diet, Logging tool.
  35. 27a, Track Your Way to Better Health With This Powerful Tool.
  36. 28 ck-12, Enzymes and Biochemical Reactions
  37. 28a Baseline of Health Foundation, The Natural Health Benefits of Seaprose-S
  38. 28b Control of Metabolism Through Enzyme Regulation - Cells regulate their biochemical processes by inhibiting or activating enzymes. May. 2016.
  39. 28c Biology Reference, Enzymes are incredibly efficient and highly specific biological catalysts.
  40. 30 Hournal of Cell Science, 2009 mTOR signaling at a glance, Mathieu Laplante, David M. Sabatini
  41. 30a youTube, mtor signaling pathway
  42. 32 Cell Signaling Technology, Autophagy Signaling Pathway
  43. 33 NCBI PMC, Overexpression of Atg5 in mice activates autophagy and extends lifespan, Jong-Ok Pyo, et al.
  44. 34 JBC - Journal of Cell Biology, 2011 192:4, Four faces of cellular senescence, Francis Rodier, Judith Campisi
  45. 40 Human Neurophysiology, CNS Clinic, AMINO ACID NEUROTRANSMITTERS

About Us

is a positive online community for seniors who are interested in longevity and becoming centenarians. Living to 100 years of age becomes a goal, and sharing and exploring this goal is an issue that matters to those in the golden years. A platform for the energetic, creative, and productive, to share life experiences by contributing your experiences on this site. Founded to explore quality living, healthy and anti aging, longevity and Becoming Centenarians.