Centenarians - Exercise for Longevity
European Masters Games, but the USA has its own National Senior Games, (NSGA).
The benefits of exercise are unblievable,but ifyou have to exercise to keep your weight downthen your Diet is Wrong, no amount ofExercise- will cure a ... Bad Diet". ... Dr. Tim Noakes - The Real Meal Revolution: The Radical, Sustainable Approach to Healthy Eating.
Exercise and Diet effect the expression of genes, and this is what the new science of Epigenetics | contributor July/2016, is about. Moreover, exercise increases Neurogenesis, exercise differentially targets the dentate gyrus (Wiki), a hippocampal subregion important for memory and implicated in cognitive aging. (1) (Note 1)
Key Knowledge: You are turning off your immune system with a poor diet. The body favors short-term survival over long-term health. This trade-off accelerates aging-associated diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune dysfunction, and cognitive decline.
Why is Exercise Important?
Because if burns calories? No, because it activates genes and the body has dozens of pathways that speed up when these genes are active.
- It improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity.
- It reduces Stress, and the the resultant cortisol release.
- It makes the TCA cycle run faster, and detoxifies fructose, improving hepatic insulin sensitivity.
For example in Obesity:
- Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (Sarcopenia).
- Frailty is a serious problem with aging. Dr. Melov, et al. has shown that
Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle
- [Melov S., et al. 2007,] ... conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.
For example with Frailty:
Hepatic Fructose Metabolism (the WMD of sugars) leads to all the manifestation of the Metabolic Syndrome, i.e. hypertension, visceral obesity, hepatic insulin resistance, low HDL cholesterol, high triclycerides, and activates de novo lipogenesis, dyslipidemia, CNS leptin resistance and Inflammation. The whole cycle is Self Promoting and a continuous consumption cycle is established. [Dr. Lustig, et al. 2009] From the Harvard Heart Letter - Abundance of fructose not good for the liver, heart, 2011. (Note 1,2)
Exercise is Stress | this is Good Stress
Exercise is Stress, and the body has an immune system that is designed to take action and respond to stress. Stresses stimulates the adrenal system and puts your body on a "War" footing. It turns on genes and repairs and rebuilds the body to make it stronger. Although it is well established that physical activity increases mitochondrial content in muscle, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have only recently been elucidated.
Dr. Doug McGuff on Healthy Aging and Longevity.
Doug McGuff-Strength Training for Health and Longevity - Oct/2016
The science of sports medicine is rapidly changing as it is now recognized that the "Stress Response" promotes "Mitochondrial Biogenesis". (7) The human body responds to Hormetic conditions and environmental Hormesis. (7a)
What metabolic systems have in common is that they are all adaptive “homeostatic” systems which help restore the organism to optimal functioning after “perturbations” by external stressors. Current studies show a 32% to 117% improvement in metabolic systems from stresses such as exercise. (Note 3) The Conversation (Academic rigour, Journalistic flair - Interactive Forum) has a Handy Interactive Body Map - highlights the health risks associated with inactivity.
Low aerobic capacity in middle-aged men associated with increased mortality rates during 45 years of follow-up ... "We found that low aerobic capacity was associated with increased rates of death. The association between exercise capacity and all-cause death was graded, with the strongest risk in the tertile with the lowest maximum aerobic capacity. Conclusion: The effect of aerobic capacity on risk of death was second only to smoking." (7b,c)
Decreased Insulin Resistance - Research supports the use of High Intensity Circuit Training - HICT (and HIIT) for reducing insulin resistance, which is a contributing factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Unfit but otherwise healthy middle-aged adults were able to improve their insulin sensitivity and blood sugar regulation after just two weeks of such training (three sessions per week). (7d)
Positive changes have been observed in insulin resistance in as little as [eight] minutes per week when executed at an intensity more than 100 [percent] VO2 max." (7e) ... Conclusion: Constant-load low-volume HIT may be a practical time-efficient strategy to induce metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk for inactivity-related disorders in previously sedentary middle-aged adults.
Another study, in 204,542 adults aged 45 through 75 years, shows that with
Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA), the proportion of vigorous activity revealed an inverse dose-response relationship
with all-cause mortality: compared with those reporting no vigorous activity. These associations were consistent in men and women, across all categories of body mass index and volume of MVPA. Another study
of 416,175 individuals reduced mortality and extended life expectancy (8,8a)
In other words, ...
Facing The Truth ... the Harder you work, the More benefits are derived.
Most recently, researchers have found that
Exercise Boosts Telomere Transcription and as we know,
telemeres are indicator of cell aging and longevity. (9,9a,9b,9c,9d)
When healthy individuals perform a cardiovascular workout, their muscles increase transcription of telomeres.
This is a new link between metabolism and telomeres, said study coauthor Anabelle Decottignies.
This benefit is an immune response by the body when ROS (wiki) are produced, and is part of our scavenger
i.e. Antioxidant mechanism. Dr. Patrick explains how "Vitamin D and Exercise" improve the telomere transcription by enzyme action of
Telemerase - aka Telomere Terminal Trransferase. Further, she describes the mechanism
How Diet & Lifestyle Influence Aging & Brain Function | UCSF Healthy Heart Talk, february/2015
Heat is Stress, as it turn out there is a
Health benefit to using a sauna. We active the
Heat Shock mechanism such as FOXO3, which are important in the
body's repair response. (10) JAMA Internal Medicine reported the Finland study on "Sauna" use shows a 23% - 48% lower CVD and CHD for all-cause mortality events.
Dr. Patrick's Video on
Hyperthermic Conditioning for Hypertrophy, Endurance, and Neurogenesis - Apr/2014
Dr. Rhonda Patrick discusses the
Neuroendocrine Effects of Heat Stress. Staying in the sauna until exhaustion has been shown to increase
norepinephrine by up to 3-fold and prolactin by up to 10-fold. She says ...
Norepinephrine is critical for focus and attention, and prolactin is involved in the
process of myelination.
Dr. Fred (Rusty) Gage, of the Salk Institute says,
Agents promoting remyelination will be beneficial not only for
typical demyelinating diseases like MS, but also for many other neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injuries and stroke. Gage, an international leader in nervous system repair.
Cold is Stress, as it turn out there is a
Health benefit to using ice and ice baths. Both heat and cold stresses activate the endorphins hormones which are the
body's natural pain medication. When endorphins are released, they make us feel better, improve our mood, increase pleasure, and minimize pain. This response increases the growth hormones. Cold stimulates the body to
create nuroepinephrine, also referred to as noradrenaline, along with epinephrine is what most of us think of as the “fight-or-flight” hormones. Stresses stimulates the adrenal system and puts your body on a "War" footing.
Stress Response, this mechanism is part of the
Immune System and immune response of the body. There is evidence that interfering with the body's
Immune Pathway Responses slows down that response. Example: taking
Antioxidants before and after exercise interferes with the body's antioxidant response.
The antioxidants that the human body creates are far more powerful than anything we can drink or eat, and the body is busy repairing and rebuilding. (10c,10d,10e)
The Additional Recommended Watching ... more
Exercise, Nutritional Pathways - Benefits
Genes and Diet - Epigenetics
Exercise and Gene Expression: this is the developing area of Epigenetics and human gene expression. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. (11,11a) "Trophic" (survival- and growth-promoting) effects on sensory and sympathetic neurons. This gene is turned on by exercise, and activating this gene shows eight distinct mRNAs are transcribed, with transcripts containing exons I-III expressed predominantly in brain and exon IV found in lung and heart. (12) Mitochondria are the engines that power each cell.
What does this mean? It means that exercise turns on the body's immune response to promote and heal itself. Every day we are learning more, one thing for sure, is that if you do not support the body's own response with the correct dietary format, then you will inhibit the body's ability to protect the "Patient".
Another gene with a lot of research, Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF-1 gene. This gene is implicated in some cancers and the
Vegan Diet has been shown to
downregulate IGF-1 activity. A meat based diet activates the gene, and "Chicken" seems to be to worst culprit.
Dr. Michael Greger - NutritionalFacts.org, Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death gives a good vegetarian argument for a
plant based diet. However, ... the Centenarian Diet does not suscribe to a plant only lifestyle.
Ketone bodies are emerging as a crucial regulators of metabolic health and endurance. This is a possible explanation for positive benefits of LCHF - Low Carbohydrate - High Fat and ketogenic diets. β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) (BHB), has been shown to be more than a metabolite. (13,13a,13b)
Our bodies evolved to run on ketones (Tables 1, 2) and the ketone body β OHB is a carrier of energy from adipocytes to peripheral tissues during fasting and exercise. It is involved with cellular signaling, histone regulation, and a ligand for cell surface receptors. β OHB acts on downstream products of metabolism including acetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and NAD+, showing linkage of outside environment to cellular function and gene expression. (13c)
β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) metabolism has been shown as a mechanism to increase
Healthspan. This primary circulating ketone is a potent regulator of a group of genes that protect cells
from oxidative stress. Treatment of cells with βOHB increased histone acetylation at the FOX03a and Mt2 promoter genes. Example, low-carbohydrate diets (LCHF), that induce substantial ketogenesis are broadly
neuroprotective and enhance resistance of neurons to oxidative damage. Ketone bodies (KB) have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration. (14,14a)
Proteins: our bodies are in constant DNA synthesis and repair rebuilding tissues and creating new cells. Proteins are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein. Protein foods are broken down into amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number of amino acids in large enough amounts to maintain good health. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. (15,15a,16)
Proteins and How Much - What is optimal how do we translate this to food requirements. New research emphasizes the relevance of protein grams per meal,
and a case can be made that a greater focus on essential amino acid (EAA) intakes is warranted to achieve optimal health outcomes. After age 30, insulin plays less of a role because
Growing is finished,
our bodies are now responding to the environment and
Leucine has been shown as the controlling EAA for repair and maintenance. (16a) The distribution of protein at individual meals is
physiologically important to optimize mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis. (16b,16c) (Proteins)
Carb Loading | Debunked - Just by pure Math
We simply cannot store enough "Carbs"
Carbohydrates: are available to us in the form of soluble and non-soluble. Humans want non-soluble carbohydrates mainly because they represent
Zero Calories and are
Gut Food. The non-soluble carbohydrates are simply those carb's that our bodies lack
the enzymes to digest. Hence the importance of our bio intestinal tract and our friendly bacteria -
Gut Microbiome. Our bodies run on energy derived from
fats and carbohydrates and our liver can convert
protein to glucose if needed. Ref: ... Metabolism.
Carb-Loading (debunked) (17,17a) is no longer the go to solution for building energy storage and boosting athletic performance. Table 1, simply shows that humans cannot store enough carbs, we must be "Fat Adaped". Ketones are emerging as a far better fuel. For optimal health, it is now recommend that eating a diet high in healthy fats and low in net carbs (total carbohydrates minus fiber) a LCHF diet, is the best type of diet and may be particularly beneficial for endurance athletes. (Ref: Time-Restricted Feeding and Endurance | contributor august/2016). Simple math: we can only store 2-4 Kcal of glucose energy, but 60-120 Kcal of fat energy.
|Adipose tissue triglyceride||12||110,000|
|Carbohydrate glycogen-muscle, |
stored - kcal
- Firstly, fatty acid are more reduced than carbohydrates.
- Second, lipids are hydrophobic - "water-fearing" (Wiki) and are higher density 9kcal/g. Whereas both glycogen and proteins are hydrophilic - "water-attracting" (Wiki) and we would need to be physically 6 times larger because 1-1.5kcal/g "wet weight" would require 6 times more cellular storage space.
Nature has Chosen - fat as our main energy storage form for two reasons:
Our ancestors would run down their "Food"
We can run all day and our ancestors did just that. Of the three macronutrients in our diet (protein, fat and carbohydrates), only carbohydrates are non-essential for human life. Tim Noakes on Insulin Resistance and High Carbohydrate diets | august/2016 (org), and his book ... The Real Meal Revolution: The Radical, Sustainable Approach to Healthy. Our bodies are capable of running on all three Macronutrients and converting them to energy. Ref: ... Metabolism. But, fats (... this site) are a better form of energy, are more efficient and produce less damaging by-products which take the form of ROS - Reactive Oxygen Species- Wiki. (18,19) ... remember, Balance - Food and Recipes.
Energy Sources: - in Working Muscle
Time Interval and Choice of Substrate
This is why "Carb-Loading"" does not work. We have max - 30 minutes Peak Energy then after an hour we are in "Fat Burning" mode. Carbohydrates are a dirty fuel and produce excessive ROS. If not Fat-Adapted, you will be inefficient when changing fuel sources. Ref: Table 1, Table 2, and Carbohydrates and Longevity | contributor October/2016
Fat Adapted | Adapted to Ketones as fuel
Maintenance Fat kcal, < 50g Net Carbohydrates, < 90g Proteins - Daily
Which is essentially how we ate prior to modern farming. And prior to our first adaptation to agriculture and hybridizing for Palatability and Sweetness (i.e. less bitter). We cannot go back, but we are smarter now and can make better choices.
Fats or Lipids: the primary role of lipids in your body is to provide aerobic energy for muscles and body processes. Fat is energy dense, containing 9 calories per gram, whereas protein and carbohydrate contain only 4 calories per gram (dry weight) and provide short term anaerobic energy.
Ref: Tables 1, 2. The body uses lipids to transport, absorb and digest fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K, and supply the body with essential fatty acids. It is an integral part of cell and hormone production,
balance of fats and oils is important to human health. (20,a,b)
Dr. Horn - Blog, muscles differ in their ability to produce ATP through anaerobic and aerobic reactions. So-called fast-twitch white muscles with few mitochondria are the
fibers, producing ATP and yielding lactate acid as a temporary product.
Aerobic fibers, those with many mitochondria, produce ATP using carbohydrates, fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids as substrates.
(20,20b) ... see also Proteins - Which are also Rich in Nutrients | contributor October/2016.
Fat Adapted | The Benefits of Ketones as Fuel
From Table1, we can see that the human animal was never intended to metabolize glucose/glycogen in large quantities, "simply"" because we cannot
store enough of it. (
The Math does not Lie) Instead we metabolize and store fats. Medical evidence shows that insulin is a very weak hormone and can just barely regulate 100mg/dl in our blood.
Fat-adaptation - (Mercola and Sisson 2012), is the normal preferred metabolic state of the
human body. Sugar-dependency is an abnormal metabolic state that inevitably leads to insulin resistance and chronic disease. (20a,20c)
Ketones are the preferred source of energy for your brain in general, but especially for those affected by diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson’s and maybe even ALS, because in these diseases certain neurons have become insulin resistant or have lost the ability to efficiently utilize glucose, which causes the neurons to die off. When ketones are present, these neurons have a better chance of surviving and thriving. (14,14a,20d,e)
Resource Tool: there are many new trials on nutrition and LCHF diet lifestyle ... and ClinicalTrials.gov - A service of the U.S. NIH is a registry
and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants conducted around the world. Dr. Jeff Volek along with
Dr. Stephen Phinney have re-written the
Atkins Diet and Dr. Volek explains the how
Fat-Adapted Athletes on LCHF have improved and some have record setting performance ...
Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | July/2016. (20f,20g),
and from contributors ... Carbohydrates and Longevity | contributor October/2016.
- ...effectively burn stored fat for energy throughout the day, and especially while sleeping.
- ... effectively oxidize dietary fat for energy. If you're adapted, your post-prandial fat oxidation will be increased, and less dietary fat will be stored in adipose tissue. ... the Primal Blueprint Carbohydrate Curve - Avoiding Metabolic Syndrome.
- ... provide plenty of accessible energy readily on hand, even if lean. If you're adapted, the genes associated with lipid metabolism will be upregulated in your skeletal muscles. You will essentially reprogram your body.
- ... rely more on fat for energy during exercise, sparing glycogen for when he or she really needs it. We suffer from to much carbohydrates, hence carbohydrate intolerance. Being able to mobilize and oxidize stored fat during exercise can reduce an athlete's reliance on glycogen. This is the classic "train low, race high" phenomenon, and it can improve performance, save the glycogen for the truly intense segments of a session, and burn more body fat. Ref: ... Hypothesis - Flight or Fight Response | contributor october/2016
According to Mark Sission - Fat Adaptation can:
100% Real Food: food is medicine. Medicine is food. This is the recipe for improved longevity -
- If it has a label, Read.
- If the label has more than one ingredient, Stop and Think.
- If it comes in a box or package and the label has more than one ingredient, Just Stop.
- If you're eating the many forms of Sugar ... Don't
Pre/Post - Workout Nutrition |
Maximizing Fat Burning
A growing body of research indicates that nature selects underfed species for extended life-span and vice versa. It shortens the life expectancy of overfed species. Humans are no exception.
The human body evolved to thrive under nutritional stress. Research at the University of Southern California reveals that extreme intermittent fasting induces even stronger rejuvenating effects on cells and tissues
than those coming from mild fasting or underfeeding. This extreme energy depletion is the same
Re-Feeding cycle that Dr. Valter Longo shows as a key longevity factor.
Under conditions of energy depletion, organisms seem supercharged for survival. Science has been recognizing that as a fact. Nonetheless, it is the level of energy depletion that apparently determines how far organisms can manage to adapt, improve and better survive.
LCHF diets as a matter of course limit carbohydrates. Pre-workout meals such as shakes, bars, and drinks are plain wrong and counter-effective. These can be high glycemic and loaded with carbs which will limit energy depletion. Carb-loading (debunked | contributor - october/2016) prior to exercise will inhibit fat burning and reduce the impact of exercise.
Sports Medicine is just now catching up as the science is changing. This new science and sports medicine is just now addressing our tendencies to interfere with our own survival response to stresses. Enhancing short term performance with the wrong fuel compromises long term longevity benefits.
It has been shown that high antioxidant intake before, during, and after exercise, interferes with the body's own antioxidant response.
The body's own
Stress Response is far superior to any supplement. (10a,10b,10f)
ROS levels increase during exercise/stress, as this is the standard stress response. Molecular mediators of endogenous ROS defense (superoxide dismutases 1 and 2; glutathione peroxidase) were also induced by exercise, and this effect was shown to be blocked by antioxidant supplementation. Any attempt to decrease exercise induced ROS production with antioxidant supplements is not only useless in terms increasing strength, performance, and recovery, but may be worse than useless.
The increase in ROS production that occurs during training is stressful in and of itself, it is also a potent activator of this Nrf2-ARE stress-response pathway, which increases our capacity to deal with metabolic stress. (10b,10c,10d,10f)
Dr. Vince Giuliano has a web site AgingSciences - Anti-Aging Firewalls and points out the body's own activation of Nrf2, a transcription factor, which turns on over 240 genes as an anti-inflammatory response.
The 3 billion years (Dr. Bonie Bassler) of cell development has created hundreds of gene encoded
Nutrient Sensing and Repair Pathways.
Our cells turn on genes for maintenance and repair 100 milliion times per second and our body replaces about 300 Billion cells per day.
Ref: ... this site - Cardiovascular System - Blood
Recovery - Exercise | DNA Repair and Rebuild Time
Sleep and Fasting, for best recovery from stress our body needs a Rest Time.
This means sleep and fasting, as the current knowledge indicate that our Circadian Rhythm controls DNA repair. The genes that control DNA repair are turned on
only when our body is fasting. This simply means that our sleep/fasting cycle is one function -
Restricted Feeding. Studies show that
Restricted Feeding is very beneficial to living organisms.
(Note 4, and 5)
A minimum of 12 hours for a healthy recovery, is required for the
Restricted Feeding cycle. To create Strength and Endurance this cycle should be 15 hours.
Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health | June/2016.
(Video) Limiting eating to 8-9 hours has many benefits i.e. active hours. DNA repair happens during fasting, this is new understanding of fasting physiology and our primordial rhythms. (21,22)
myCircadianClock.org app that helps you understand your body's rhythms while contributing to research. (23)
Office Work - Exercise | Ditching Desks and Chairs
Work and Sitting present a modern day problem. Dr. Kelly Starrett, is the author of "Deskbound: Standing Up to a Sitting World" and points out that our bodies are a neurobiological mechanical system. Much of the pain, decreased mobility and stiffness people experience is not pathological. In most cases, it's simply the result of inefficient or incomplete movement.
In "Deskbound," Dr. Kelly Starrett quotes research from Dr. James Levine - JustStand.org showing that for every hour you sit down, your life expectancy decreases by two hours. For comparison, every cigarette smoked reduces life expectancy by 11 minutes. That means sitting down can be more hazardous to your health than smoking. Now that's exciting ...
However, Dr. Starrett notes that you cannot simply replace sitting with standing. Your body was designed for full range of motion, and simply standing does not optimize your physiology either. Also, sitting CAN be beneficial, when done right. In other words, there's a skill to sitting in a way that's beneficial to health.
Dr. Joseph Mercola shows his standing desk in the office, and talks about the benefits of standing. He discusses "Is Sitting Making You Sick, Depressed, and Overweight?", his back problems, and how he bought stand-up desks for his entire staff.
... more TBD. i.e. both Dr. Starrett youTube channel - Mobility|Wod and Dr. Levine have good
youTube videos for your own research.
I do not think there is a mystery here, for example: Can you squat down and take a Poop? this is normal in China.
Ok - Now What?
Exercise ... is Good Stress, so avoid a sedentary lifestyle and avoid the
Colloquial Tag - Couch Potato.
The body has three to six (3-6) principle circulatory systems, depending on definitions and
All require muscle movement to function.
→ Cardiovascular - Heart, → Pulmonary - Lungs,
→ Systemic -Blood and Vessels, moved by our involuntary muscle system.
A big issue is that everyone responds differently to Carbohydrate Sensitivity → Intolerance. Hence, we see people that can use Sugars and many who develop chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Ref: ... Insulin Resistance.
Simple solution, avoid carbohydrates as they offer no known nutritional benefits. Carbohydrates are however packaged in food source organisms that do provide Longevity Vitamins. We want and need Phytochemicals from our Diet, otherwise we suffer from malnutrition. The symptoms of malnutrition is what this site is all about.
Our foods provide Phytonutrients, macronutrients, micronutrients (for critical DNA repair) (R1), Polyphenols, Phytosterols, Flavonoids, Lignans, Antioxidants, and Carotenoids, that do allow life to continue. Ref: 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols. (Resource 1,2,3)
Certainly avoid processed carbohydrates, fats and oils, and packaged and processed foods. A direct result of too many carbohydrates is Insulin Resistance functional manifested as Carbohydrate Intolerance. Dr. Volek discusses his current views on the benefits of a LCHF plan - Health-Promoting Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Lifestyle | july/2016 and this site follows this type of plan with the addition of Dr. Ames' "Triage Theory" ... the Centenarian Diet.
- If you are eating
Sugar, using refined oils -
Modern Soy, Canola, Corn as these are all GMO, and chemically processedDr. Champ, Caveman Doctor, (24) (this would include Tofu, as it is made from GMO soy), and eating any processed foods, then you are counteracting your exercise effort. You cannot get into Ketosis and burn
- Harvard Heart Letter - Abundance of fructose not good for the liver, heart, 2011. - From fructose to fat - The entry of fructose into the liver kicks off a series of complex chemical transformations.
(Image for this Pathway - Journal of Clinical Investigations) One remarkable
change is that the liver uses fructose, a carbohydrate, to create fat. This process is called lipogenesis. Give the liver enough fructose, and tiny fat droplets begin to accumulate in liver cells (see figure).
This buildup is called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, because it looks just like what happens in the livers of people who drink too much alcohol.
NAFLD (Anerican Liver Foundation) was virtually unknown before 1980, now nonalcoholic fatty liver disease affects up to 30% of adults in the United States and other developed countries, and between 70% and 90% of those who are obese or who have diabetes. (25)
- elevates triglycerides
- increases harmful small particle LDL (so-called bad cholesterol)
- promotes the buildup of fat around organs (visceral fat)
- increases blood pressure
- makes tissues insulin-resistant, a precursor to diabetes
- increases the production of free radicals, energetic compounds that can damage DNA and cells.
Beyond the Liver - The breakdown of fructose in the liver does more than lead to the buildup of fat and NAFLD. It also:
- For example, physical inactivity raises your risk of general ill health by 114 percent, your risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 82 percent, and your risk of depression by 150 percent. Overall, chronic inactivity has a mortality rate similar to smoking. (25a,b,c)
Cellis a perfect lean mean machine, and we replace all of our cells regularly. Our bodies are doing this every second, plus DNA repair, and immune responses. The cell has evolved to grow, reproduce, and repair itself. 2 billion years to achieve this, then they started organizing ...
The Human - Two Biological Organisms in One.
Our favorite youTube presentations on the cell are: TED TALK: The secret, social lives of bacteria, Dr. Bonnie Bassler | april/09 (26) Chemical Conversations: How Bacteria Talk to Each Other , Dr. Bonnie Bassler | august/10 (27)
- Genes are activated, mitochondrial biogenesis is turned on and with it comes the body's own antioxidant response which is used by our immune system.
This is known as Hormesis (28) a beneficial response to stresses (improved health, stress tolerance, growth or longevity).
There is lactate generation which modulates the glycolytic system, (29) molecular mediators used by the cells and all oxygen dependent energy production cycles,
(ex. obesity and insulin resistance (30)) the inflammation response is the body's diagnostic and repair response to stress, whether it is
Exerciseor the complex modern